Showing posts with label Fox. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Fox. Show all posts

Friday, 21 July 2017

Louis M. Bloomfield, PERMINDEX and the World Trade Centres



1.  Permindex and Its Five Subsidiaries 

When Jim Garrison, the New Orleans District Attorney, began to investigate the assassination of President Kennedy, he took the position that regardless of who was behind the assassination, the American people could take the truth, should have the facts, and that the right of the American people to know superseded an damage that might be done to the image of the United States by the revelation of respected government leaders' involvement in the crime.

Chief Justice Warren and other members of the Commission charged to investigate the assassination took another position: that is, to reveal the assassination scheme would do great harm and damage to the image of the United States in the eyes of the world, and therefore, it would be to the best interests of the Nation that their findings be as were reported by them.

Enough evidence has now been uncovered by the Warren Commission, other investigative agencies here and in Europe, and Jim Garrison to reveal an almost total working knowledge of how the assassination was carried out and by whom.

The killing of President Kennedy was planned and supervised by Division Five of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, a relatively small department within the FBI whose usual duties are espionage and counter-espionage activities.

Actually, Division Five acted dually with the Defense Intelligence Agency which was acting on behalf of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in the Pentagon. Directly under the two-pronged leadership of Division Five and the DIA was the Control Group, their highly secret policy agency - the Defense Industrial Security Command.

The Defense Industrial Security Command has always been kept secret because it acts, in addition to its two official control organizations, on behalf of NASA, the Atomic Energy Commission, the U.S. Information Agency, and the arms, equipment, ammunition, munitions and related miscellaneous supply manufacturing corporations contracting with NASA, the AEC, USIA, and the Pentagon. One can readily observe that DISC is not compatible with an open Democracy and the U.S. Constitution. Consequently, the top secret arms manufacturers' police agency has been kept from the knowledge of even most U.S. officials and Congressmen.

The Defense Industrial Security Command had its beginnings when J. Edgar Hoover in the early 1930's organized the police force of the fledgling Tennessee Valley Authority at the request of David Lillienthal. The police force covered the entire TVA from Knoxville, Tennessee through Huntsville and Florence, Alabama into Kentucky and back through the eastern portion of Tennessee into southern Kentucky. This was one of the first federal agencies with a separate police force. This force grew and Lillienthal took it forward to cover the Atomic Energy Commission, thus tying it into the Army Intelligence Service.

L.M. Bloomfield, a Montreal, CANADA lawyer bearing the reputation as a sex deviate, the direct supervisor of all contractual agents with J. Edgar Hoover's Division Five, was the top co-ordinator for the network planning the execution. A Swiss corporation, Permindex, was used to head five front organizations responsible for furnishing personnel and supervisors to carry out assigned duties.
The five groups under Permindex and their supervisors were:
1. The Czarist Russian, Eastern European and Middle East exile organization called SOLIDARISTS, headed by Ferenc Nagy, ex-Hungarian Premier, and John DeMenil, Russian exile from Houston, Texas, a close friend and supporter of Lyndon Johnson for over thirty years.

2. A section of the AMERICAN COUNCIL OF CHRISTIAN CHURCHES headed by H.L. Hunt of Dallas, Texas.

3. A Cuban exile group called FREE CUBA COMMITTEE headed by Carlos Prio Socarras, ex-Cuban President.

4. An organization of United States, Caribbean, and Havana, Cuba gamblers called the Syndicate headed by Clifford Jones, ex-Lieutenant Governor of Nevada and Democratic National Committeeman, and Bobby Baker of Washington, D.C. This group worked closely with a Mafia family headed by Joe Bonnano.

5. The SECURITY DIVISION of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) headed by Wernher Von Braun, head of the German Nazi rocket program from 1932 through 1945.  Headquarters for this group was the DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL SECURITY COMMAND at Muscle Shoals Redstone Arsenal in Alabama and on East Broad Street in Columbus, Ohio.
The Defense Industrial Security Command is the police and espionage agency for the U.S. munitions makers. DISC was organized by J. Edgar Hoover; William Sullivan, his chief assistant, is in direct command. We shall later examine the involvement of a large number of the DISC agents including Clay Shaw, Guy Bannister, David Ferrie, Lee Harvey Oswald, Jack Ruby and others with Permindex's Louis Mortimer Bloomfield of Montreal, Canada in charge.

As it must be, all of the preceding facts are established and documented by overwhelming evidence beyond a reasonable doubt on the following pages. Gordon Novel obtained the aid of the Columbus office in 1967 when Jim Garrison was attempting to get him back to Louisiana from Ohio. Personnel of the Defense Intelligence Agency were subject to assignment with the Defense Industrial Security Command.


2.  J. Edgar Hoover, Ferenc Nagy, Clay Shaw, L.M. Bloomfield, and Permindex.

The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation was in charge of NASA's Security Division and the Defense Industrial Security Command in his position as head of counter-espionage activities in the United States. His agents investigated every employee of the space agency as well as the employees of the pertinent contractors doing business with NASA and also prospective employees of every arms and munitions manufacturer.

The Defense Intelligence Agency is headed by Lt. General Joseph F. Carroll, a former assistant Director of the FBI. Carroll worked closely with Sullivan, Hoover and L.M. Bloomfield in directing activities of the munition-makers' police agency, the Defense Industrial Security Command. Walter Sheridan, whose activities are covered later, was the direct liaison man between Carroll and Robert F. Kennedy during the pertinent period. The address for DISC is 3990 East Broad Street, Columbus, Ohio. The Field office for the Command was located at the old Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville and Muscle Shoals, Alabama.
Von Braun had been decorated more than any other Nazi during World War II. Hoover had worked directly with Von Braun in connection with NASA's security since his arrival in the United States in December 1945.

Lyndon Johnson, as Vice-President, was Chairman of NASA, and he, Von Braun, Bobby Baker, [and] Fred Black had worked diligently to obtain the nine billion dollar Apollo contract for North American Aviation in 1961. NASA awarded this contract to North American despite the fact that it went against the recommendation of its own source evaluation board.1 Each of the NASA security personnel who were assigned duties in connection with the assassination were employees or contractees for Division Five of the FBI and many were connected with the other four groups. It must be born in mind that this was a relatively small group within all of these agencies. It was not official, and it was not an American operation, but was simply the independent action taken by these men, some of whom happened to hold official positions.

J. Edgar Hoover was named first Director of the FBI in 1924, and he immediately organized the anti-communist Division Five for espionage and counter-espionage work which President Roosevelt made official in 1936. Actually, Division Five was in existence as the General Intelligence Division of the Justice Department since 1919. Hoover, an Assistant Attorney General and head of the GID, had used the Czarist Russians in tracing the Bolsheviks during the Red Scare and Palmer raids of that period.2
1924 was the year the Communists finally took complete control of Russia after five years of resistance by the imperial Czarists. From 1918 to 1923, the leaders of the Czarists were leaving Russia with vast fortunes by the tens of thousands. One of those escaping Russians was John DeMenil, presently of Houston, Texas, who fled to France, married into the Schlumberger family, moved to Caracas, Venezuela and then to Houston, Texas before World War II. He is presently the Chairman of the Board of Schlumberger Corporation, a world-wide oil well service company.

The forerunners of the Solidarists have been described by James Wechsler of the New York Post and other writers, before and during World War II, as the Ukrainian Fascists. The Solidarists expanded this group to include all East European exiles, including those of various religious denominations. Of course, these Russian exiles in all countries of the world were violently anti-communist and considered themselves as a government in exile with headquarters in Munich, Germany.3  One has only to glance at Czarist Russian history to learn that these people are the most proficient dealers in assassination the world has ever known.

George DeMohrenschildt, a Russian emigre who refused to join the Solidarists and who was familiar with the workings of espionage groups and had worked with them in the past, testified that J. Edgar Hoover, using Division Five of the FBI, was the planner of the assassination of President Kennedy. Through DeMohrenschildt's testimony before the Commission and his documentation, the connection of the espionage section of the FBI and the Assassination has been established.4

The public records of the Corporate Records Department of Italy and Switzerland, Who's Who in the South and Southwest, 1963, 1964, The Invisible Government, The Espionage Establishment by Wise and Ross, Buddy Floyd murder files, Alice Texas, Warren Commission 26 volumes., the Grand Jury records of New Orleans Parish, New Orleans Louisiana, all further substantiate, bolster, and corroborate the testimony of DeMohrenschildt concerning the FBI's Division Five's involvement.
Many examiners of the case have concluded that George DeMohrenschildt was a part of the conspiracy because of his close association with Oswald during the fall of 1962, and winter and early spring of 1963, but a close reading of the Russian exile's testimony before the Warren Commission shows that DeMohrenschildt was being used by the Solidarists the same as Oswald was being used, and was to have been tied in with Oswald; in connection with the assassination. However, DeMohrenschildt, a highly polished professional geologist, saved himself by moving to Haiti in April of 1963 in connection with a contract with the government of Haiti, where he still resided on the day of the assassination of President Kennedy.

DeMohrenschildt, in retrospect, knew that Division Five of the FBI and the Solidarists had intended to use him as a scapegoat along with Oswald, and he did not hesitate to name the small group within the Federal Bureau of Investigation as the instigators of the assassination of President Kennedy.5
Concerning the Solidarists, Jack Ruby was a second generation immigrant from the White Russian area of Poland and his brother, Hyman Rubenstein, was born there. Ralph Paul, Ruby's Dallas partner in the Carousel Club, was a Russian immigrant having been born in Kiev, Russia.6

While in confinement, Jack Ruby said in letters later authenticated by Hamilton Autographs, New York City, that pogroms against the Jews in this country were a real threat. He repeated over and over the words "pogroms against the Jews" in these letters and in a number of habeas corpus hearings in Federal District Court in Dallas, and at the same time, he testified that Lyndon Johnson was the head of the organization carrying out the assassination plans. Ruby's testimony is acceptable in every court as an accomplice witness needing only corroboration in so far as his naming Lyndon Johnson as one of the accomplices. This has been done.

Ruby's constant use of the words "pogroms against the Jews"  reveal his close affiliation with and his deeply ingrained awareness of his family's Russian Czarist background. Everyone even slightly conversant with Russian history knows that the words "pogroms against the Jews" are exclusively descriptive of the Czarist Russian Cossacks pillaging and killing of Jews in their villages and neighborhoods in Russia during the centuries under the Czars. But to return to J. Edgar Hoover's connection with the Czarist Russians in exile.

With the Solidarists' vast number of agents within Russia and the common anti- communist objectives with J. Edgar Hoover,  these two groups immediately merged and have continually worked almost as one since that time. In 1960, when it was determined that Castro was a Communist, he too was considered an occupying force, and the Cuban exiles with the common cause worked quite naturally into the Solidarist and Division Five organizations.  Another organization participating with Division Five was a religious group called the American Council of Christian Churches. A.C.C.C.'s West Coast representative, E.E. Bradley, was indicted by the New Orleans Grand Jury for complicity in the assassination. A.C.C.C. launched a campaign in 1964, at J. Edgar Hoover's request, to elect him President of the United States.7

In 1941, J. Edgar Hoover had his good friend and agent, Carl McIntire, organize the espionage and intelligence unit under the cover name "American Council of Christian Churches" with the headquarters in New York City. This group was able to take in many innocent religious groups who did not know they were connected with a spy and propaganda agency. However, Hoover and McIntire through this guise were able to place agents posing as ministers and missionaries throughout the United States and most Latin American countries. We will examine the involvement of this group's agents later.8

HOOVER was joined in the cabal to murder President Kennedy by LYNDON JOHNSON, WALTER JENKINS, Johnson's assistant, FRED KORTH (whom Kennedy had fired as Secretary of the Navy some two weeks before November 22), H.L. HUNT of A.C.C.C, JEAN DEMENIL, Houston multi-millionaire, head of Schlumberger, and a director of the Russian exile Solidarists, CARLOS PRIO SOCARRAS, ex-Cuban president and long time gambling partner of Jack Ruby and director of the anti-Castro Cubans, BOBBY BAKER, ex-Senate Secretary, ROY M. COHEN, New York attorney and head of the Jewish League Against Communism, CLIFFORD JONES, ex-Lieutenant Governor of Nevada, Democratic National Committeeman, and business partner with Bobby Baker and L.J. McWillie, L.J. MCWILLIE, of Las Vegas, Nevada a partner in Havana gambling with Ruby and Jones, L.M. BLOOMFIELD of Montreal, a long time friend and agent of J. Edgar Hoover, FERENC NAGY, ex-Premier of Hungary, WERNHER VON BRAUN, German Nazi rocket engineer whom Hitler personally decorated for his work in slaughtering over 7,000 Allies during World War II,  JOHN CONNALLY and CLINT MURCHISON, SR.9

L.J. McWillie, who earlier had been a partner in the Havana, Cuba gambling casino with Jack Ruby, Clifford Jones and ex-Cuban President, Carlos Prio Socarras, in 1962 entered a new business arrangement with Clifford Jones and Bobby Baker at the Thunderbird Hotel Casino in Las Vegas.10 The Warren Commission uncovered incontrovertible evidence that Ruby and McWillie were the closest friends and business associates for over fifteen years. Ruby and Ray Brantly of Dallas, the Warren Commission discovered, had sent a number of Cobra guns to McWillie in Havana in 1958, but Ruby and McWillie had been gun runners for years.11

The complicity of Carlos Prio Socarras, President of Cuba from 1948 to 1952, with the assassination group was documented and authenticated in the official volumes of the Warren Commission Hearings in volume XXVI at page 634:

December 1, 1963
AT T-2 advised on November 29, 1963, . . . . stated that in the . . . 1950's, Jack Ruby held interest in the Colonial Inn, a nightclub and gambling house in Hollandale, Florida. He stated that Jack Ruby, known then as Rubenstein, was active in arranging illegal flights of weapons from Miami to the Castro organization in Cuba. According to T-2, Ruby was reportedly part owner of two planes used for these purposes.T-2 further stated that Ruby subsequently left Miami and purchased a substantial share in a Havana gambling house in which one Carlos Prio. . . . was principal owner. T-2 stated that Carlos Prio was within favor of former Cuban leader Batista, but was instrumental in financing and managing accumulation of arms by pro-Castro forces . . .
On page 650 of the same volume, a revealing document is found connecting Prio, Ruby, and Robert Ray McKeown, the gun-runner who was to work with Ruby in shipping the surplus jeeps to Cuba in 1959, T. Gonzales, who rode the bus into Mexico with Oswald, and Ramos, who stayed at the Hotel Commercia in Mexico City with Oswald. The document follows:
Information concerning reported contact between Jack L. Ruby and Robert Ray McKeown was furnished by President's Commission on March 2, 1964. . . .Files reveal that McKeown was one of the subjects in an extensive investigation . . concerning the activities of Carlos Prio. . . . Prio, a former President of Cuba . . . was engaged with others, including McKeown, in attempting to assist Castro in his revolutionary action against the Batista regime in Cuba. . . .

Alcohol and Tobacco Tax Unit, Bureau of Internal Revenue, continued the investigation in this matter and charged various individuals, including McKeown, with conspiracy to smuggle guns and related equipment to Cuba. The defendants in this action were as follows: Dr. Carlos Prio Socarras, also known as Carlos Prio, age unknown, male, resident of Miami, Florida, citizen of Cuba. . . .

Orlando Garcia Vasquez, also known as Orlando Vasquez, F. Valdez, Ramos, age unknown, male, resident of Miami, Florida, citizen of Cuba.12

Angel Banos, age unknown, male, resident of Miami, Florida, citizen of the United States.

Robert R. McKeown, also known as Dick McKeown, Max, J. T. Brown, H.J. McAllister, age 47, male, resident of Galena Park, Texas, citizen of the United States. . . .

Manuel Arques, also known as Manny, age 23, male, resident of Miami, Florida, citizen of the United States.

Evelyn Eleanor Archer, also known as Mrs. Manuel Arques,
Ruby, age 36, female, resident of Keyport, New Jersey, citizen of the United States.
Pedro Luis Chaviano Reyes, also known as Luis Chaviano, F.
Castillo, Gilbert Pawtoja, age 44, male resident of Miami, Florida, citizen of Cuba.
Abelardo Pujol Barrera, also known as Joe Sanco, Jose Sauco,
Jose Alonzo, age 42, male, resident of Miami, Florida, citizen of Cuba.
Francisco Gonzales Obregon, also known as T. Gonzales.13
Mrs. Ethel Jane McKeown, age unknown, female, resident of Galena Park, Texas, citizen of the United States.
The arms and ammunition being smuggled to Castro at the time and later to anti-Castro Cubans by McKeown, Ruby, Prio, and their New Orleans associates were obtained principally from the Redstone Arsenal in the Florence, Muscle Shoals, and Huntsville area of Alabama, and to a lesser extent from the Pine Bluff, Arkansas arsenal. The orders for these men and direction for their activities came from the office of the Defense Industrial Security Command, the munitions makers secret police agency at Redstone..14

McKeown, Ruby, Prio, and their New Orleans associates, David Ferrie, Clay Shaw, Maurice Brooks Gatlin, Guy Bannister, Sergio Arcacha Smith, and the others all followed the orders of Jean DeMenil in Houston and Wernher Von Braun of Redstone. Clay Shaw and Walter Jenkins, only two of the large number of sex deviates at command and lower level in the cabal were together almost constantly, pushing LBJ during the 1960 Democratic Convention in Los Angeles, according to delegates present there. Shaw and Jenkins will be covered later and their close relationship established.

Prio had met with John DeMenil and Fidel Castro in Houston, Texas in 1956 and furnished Castro with the funds to purchase the ship which transported Castro and his men back to Cuba after their Mexican stay. This is documented in all accounts of Castro's rise to power.

Prio, DeMenil and their group all turned violently against Castro in 1960 when Castro made public his Communist connections.

After this time, DeMenil and Prio, through Schlumberger, furnished agents, arms, transportation and organization for the overthrow of Castro. As a matter of fact, Artime, who was in charge of the Bay of Pigs Cuban Revolutionary Council, had been Cuba's Premier under Prio's rule.

Jack Ruby's complicity with ex-President Prio in the running of guns to Cuba, both before and after Castro took charge in January 1959, is documented by well over 150 credible witnesses in the twenty-six volumes of evidence taken before the Warren Commission. A large group of these witnesses testified concerning Jack Ruby's presence and gun running activities in Islamorada, Florida in 1958.  Islamorada is located on the Florida Keys, which DeMenil and Schlumberger have for a long time used as a shipping point for arms due to its proximity to Cuba.

We quote from the testimony of the witnesses:
MRS. MARY THOMPSON, 1155 Dupont, Kalamazoo, Michigan, states as follows: On about May 30, 1958, she traveled to Islamorada, Florida, accompanied by her daughter and son-in-law, DOLORES and RICHARD RHOADS. They visited her brother and sister-in-law, JAMES and MARY LOU 'BUTCH' WOODARD, who resided in a cottage, address not known, which was located behind the cottage of TED WILLIAMS, well-known professional baseball player. While there, they met JACK and ISABEL (last name unknown), acquaintances of the WOODARDS. There was notsufficient room in the WOODARD cottage and JACK and ISABEL suggested that DOLORES and RICHARD spend the night at their home. The offer was accepted and it was determined that JACK and ISABEL lived in a small motel situated on a white coral pier, which was reached by crossing an old bridge.
. . . . . MARY LOU said that JACK was originally from Chicago, Illinois, and reportedly had killed a couple of men. He later ran a drinking place in Dallas, Texas, where he became acquainted with JAMES WOODARD, who was a member of the Dallas, Texas Police Department for a short time in 1954. . . . . . . .
MARY LOU said that JACK had a trunk full of guns and ... that JACK was going to supply them to the Cubans. MRS. THOMPSON stated that she was told that there were supplies of guns hidden in the marshes. . . .15
Mary Thompson and six members of her family identified Jack Ruby as being the person involved in the gun running in Florida in 1958. But the Warren Commission had already uncovered one hundred fifty unimpeached witnesses who put Jack Ruby in theCuban gun running business for over twelve years preceding 1963.  Let us return to the involvement of Carlos Prio Socarras.  On November 20, 1963, Salvador Diaz Verson proceeded to Mexico City at the direction of Carlos Prio. In Mexico City, Diazimmediately after the assassination fed the following story to the world news media:

Dr. Angel Fernandez Varela stated that when Diaz Verson returned to Miami from Mexico City in the latter part of November 1963, Diaz Verson advised him that while in Mexico City he had had contact with other newspapermen there and had learned that the Mexican Federal Police had arrested a Mexican citizen, Sylvia Duran, an employee of the Cuban Embassy in Mexico City, because of her connection between Oswald and the Cuban Embassy.16

Dr. Fernandez said Diaz Verson also told him that Oswald had stayed at the home of Duran, and subsequently met with the Cuban Ambassador in Mexico City at a restaurant called Caballo Bayo, accompanied by Sylvia Duran. Dr. Fernandez said he understood from Diaz Verson that Duran, the Cuban Ambassador to Mexico, whose name Fernandez did not know, and Oswald, reportedly went for a ride together in a car. Dr. Fernandez said that the federal police in Mexico City reportedly had turned over the information concerning these incidents involving Oswald; to the United StatesEmbassy in Mexico City.17

Salvador Diaz Verson had been Prio's Chief of Military Intelligence Service during the Cuban presidency of Prio from 1948 through 1952. Diaz and Prio together had worked for the Defense Industrial Security Command since coming to the U.S. after Castro embraced Communism.18

The anti-Castro Cuban part of the plan was to tie the Castro regime into the murder of Kennedy and thus to have the U. S. military give all service to the overthrow of Castro.

Another connection of Carlos Prio Socarras and the assassination unit was uncovered by the Warren Commission. This evidence concerned Dr. Cesar Fernandez, Prio's Minister of Information during his presidency of Cuba. Prio and Fernandez in addition had been close lifetime friends and Prio obtained Fernandez employment with the Defense Industrial Security Command.

The following was confirmed by the daughter of the witness in all respects, she having been shown the documents of Mrs. Hoover in October, 1963. Here is the story of Prio's friend, Fernandez.
On November 27, 1963, Corporal Theodore La Zar, Pennsylvania State Police, Hollidaysburg, Pa., advised that at approximately 10:00 pm on November 27, 1963, Robert Steele, 316 Brayton Avenue, Altoona, Pa., stopped at the Pennsylvania State Police Barracks and advised that he was the brother of Margaret Kathryn Hoover, 105 S. Walnut St., Martinsburg, Pa., and had the following information to offer concerning the assassination of President Kennedy which he had received from her.19During the third week in October, 1963, Mrs. Hoover who lives in a second-story apartment, 105 S. Walnut St., Martinsburg, Pa., located three items in the dry leaves immediately below her upstairs porch. This porch and Mrs. Hoover's residence are located at the rear of a lot containing two homes. The home at the rear is occupied by Mrs. Hoover and the home in the front of the lot, which was formerly occupied by Mrs. Hoover, is known as 400 E. Allegheny St., Martinsburg, Pa., and for the past two months has been occupied by Dr. Julio Fernandez, a Cuban refugee, who is presently teaching at the Morrison Cove Junior High School, Martinsburg.20

These items consisted of an envelope used for tickets from the Seaboard Airline Railroad Company, Miami, Fla.; a used ticket which was enclosed therein indicating the holder had a coach reservation on the railroad, seat number 48, car number 3E, on a train leaving Miami, Fla., at 12:40 pm on September 25, 1963, and arriving in Washington, D.C., the following date. This ticket bore the number, D-214332. Also in the leaves was a throw-away advertisement, commonly used in advertising trailers, which was found by Mrs. Hoover. Penciled on the back of this throw-away, which contained no handwriting, were the following notations:
The upper left hand corner contained the name of a club, unrecalled by Mrs. Hoover, and a six digit number thereunder which contained either an address or a telephone number.21  In the top middle of the page was the name, Lee Oswald.22On the right top of the page was the word, Rubenstein.23 In the middle of the page were the words "Jack Ruby".24
On the bottom of the page, toward the center, were the words, Dallas, Texas.25
Clay Shaw, the defendant in the New Orleans assassination case and L.M. Bloomfield of Montreal, Canada, were the only North American members of both the Board of Directors of Permindex and Centro-Mondiale Comerciale. Shaw had been one of the incorporators of the Swiss corporation, Permindex.26 The other members of the Board include a publisher of the Fascist National-Zeitung in West Germany, an Italian industrialist who married into the family of Adolph Hitler's finance minister, and a Rome lawyer, the Secretary of the Fascist Party.27

Also on the Board of Permindex was Ferenc Nagy, a Solidarist and Prime Minister of Hungary from 1946 to 1947; George Mandel, alias Mantello, a Hungarian Fascist who supervised attempts to purchase national monuments for real estate development in Italy, and Munir Chourbagi, an uncle of King Farouk. Chourbagi was the victim in a recent murder in Italy. 28

The ruling clique of Permindex and its two subsidiaries, the Italo American Hotel Corporation and Centro Mondiale Comerciale, in addition to the sophisticated Nazis and Fascists heretofore named, were Gutierez di Spadafora, who was Under- Secretary of Agriculture in Mussolini's Fascist regime and who was also a ruling lord in the Mafia with Italy and Southern Europe as his land area; Enrico Mantello (Henry Mandel, brother of George Mandel); Guiseppee Zigiotti, the head of the Italian political party, Fascist Nationalist Association for Militia Arms; and Hungarian emigre and former Nazi, H. Simonfay.29
On December 1, 1962, the representative of the publication, Who's Who in the South and Southwest, was told by Clay Shaw in New Orleans that he was a director for the Swiss Corporation, Permindex. Shaw was also one of the directors for Centro Mondiale Comerciale of Rome. As we shall see later, one purpose of Permindex was the funding of the 1961 and 1962 assassination attempts on DeGaulle.

Both firms being directed by the same men, the stated corporate purpose was to encourage trade between nations. Their actual purpose was fourfold:
1.To fund and direct assassination of European, Mid-East and world leaders considered threats to the Western World and to petroleum interests of the backers.
2.To furnish couriers, agents, and management in transporting, depositing and re-channeling funds through Swiss banks for Las Vegas, Miami, Havana and international gambling syndicate.

3.To co-ordinate the espionage activities of the Solidarists and Division Five of the FBI with groups in sympathy with their objectives and to receive and channel funds from the financiers to the action groups.

4.To build, acquire and operate hotels and gambling casinos in the Caribbean, Italy and other tourist areas.30
The principal financiers of Permindex were a number of U. S. oil companies, H. L. Hunt of Dallas, Clint Murchison of Dallas, John DeMenil, Solidarist director of Houston, John Connally as executor of the Sid Richardson estate, Haliburton Oil Co., Senator Robert Kerr of Oklahoma, Troy Post of Dallas, Lloyd Cobb of New Orleans, Dr. Oschner of New Orleans, George and Herman Brown of Brown and Root, Houston, Attorney Roy M. Cohn, Chairman of the Board for Lionel Corporation, New York City, Schenley Industries of New York City, Walter Dohrnberger, ex-Nazi General and his company, Bell Aerospace, Pan American World Airways, its subsidiary, Intercontinental Hotel Corporation, Paul Raigorodsky of Dallas through his company, Claiborne Oil of New Orleans, Credit Suisse of Canada, Heineken's Brewery of Canada and a host of other munition makers and NASA contractors directed by the Defense Industrial Security Command.

The gambling syndicate and Mafia contracting agents who handled the transactions with Permindex were ex-President Carlos Prio Socarras of Havana, Miami and Houston, Clifford Jones of Las Vegas, Morris Dalitz of Las Vegas, Detroit, Cleveland and Havana, former head of the Cleveland mob and close friend of Hunt, Hoover and Roy Cohn, L.J. McWillie of Las Vegas, a gambling partner with Cliff Jones, Bobby Baker of Washington, D.C., Ed Levinson of Las Vegas, Benny Seigelbaum of Miami, Henry Crown of Chicago, associate of the Mafia, Patrick Hoy of the controlling clique in General Dynamics and Joe Bonanno of Lionel Corporation of New York.31

It should be pointed out here that John Connally, Paul Raigorodsky and Jean DeMenil were close friends and business associates. The were members of an exclusive club in Northern Jamaica. The name of the club was Tryall located on Montego Bay.

Bill Stephenson, former head of British Intelligence in the U.S., started in the club in 1946. Connally, DeMenil and Raigorodsky owned and still own palatial retreats within the tightly guarded Tryall compound. L.M. Bloomfield met with the three on numerous occasions at Tryall in Jamaica.32
Among Connally's assigned duties was the keeping of Texas police agencies in line after the murder. 

John Connally was an active participant in the assassination plans, but he was one of the agents whose over-all knowledge was limited by the "need to know basis".

One of the banks through which the American backers channeled funds to Permindex was Astaldo Vaduz in Miami, Florida.  As a matter of fact, the Miami bank was owned and controlled by the Permindex financiers and board members. The European banks handling the accounts were De Famaco Vaduz, Liechtenstein, Credit Bank of Geneva, Switzerland, (Credit Bank and Credit Suisse are one and the same), Banca Nazionale del Lavoro of Italy, De Famaco Astalde Vaduz, Switzerland and Seligman Bank of Basal, Switzerland. The attorney for the transactions through the Miami bank was Alex Carlson, Double-Chek's Miami Springs manager.33

Alex Carlson turned the entire CIA Double-Chek organization and personnel over to Division Five of the FBI to work for Permindex in executing the assassination thus causing many astute observers to mistakenly believe the CIA carried out the affair.

L.M. Bloomfield, a lawyer of Montreal, Canada and a long time friend and confidant of J. Edgar Hoover, has been Hoover's contract supervisor of Division Five since his days in the OSS before World War II. Bloomfield held one-half of the shares of Permindex and was in total command of its operation in Europe and Africa as well as the North and South American continents. He was the co-ordinator of all activities responsible only to Hoover and Johnson in carrying out the plans for John Kennedy's assassination.34

Bloomfield ordered Permindex's Ferenc Nagy and George Mandel, alias Giorgio Mantello, to the United States in 1962 where they helped to supervise the plans. Mandell was assigned to the Los Angeles, California area. Ferenc Nagy, former Premier of Hungary in 1946 and 1947, settled in Dallas, Texas, where he contacted H.L. Hunt, Igor Voshinin, George Bouhe, Peter Gregory of Fort Worth, Paul Raigorodsky and other members of the Solidarists and took command of actual planning in the Southwest.  It should be pointed out that although the White Russians were dominant in the Solidarists, it contained East Europeans, Jewish and Orthodox Christians and even Arabic nationals whose countries had been taken over by Communism. 35

Nagy in Dallas over the months before November 22, 1963, worked with Carlos Prio Socarras and Alex Carlson in Miami, Clay Shaw in New Orleans, John DeMenil in Houston, Clifford Jones and L.J. McWillie in Las Vegas, Bobby Baker and Fred Korth in Washington, D.C., Albert Osborne, alias J.H. Bowen, of Laredo, Texas and Mexico, Roy Cohn in New York City, and others all under the direction of L.M. Bloomfield in making the plans and preparations. 36

Albert Osborne, the missionary supervisor of the professional assassins, met Nagy in Laredo, Texas a short time before the November date. The details of the movement of the professionals were worked out and Osborne then traveled to Montreal where he conferred with his direct boss of over twenty years, L.M. Bloomfield. 37

On November 22, Osborne and about ten of his riflemen were living at 3126 Harlendale in Oak Cliff, a section of Dallas.  Three of his professionals were at Tammie True's house in Fort Worth and Leon Oswald, alias William Seymour, had been at the Oak Cliff address for about four weeks. Before dark on November 23, l963, Osborne, Seymour, Gonzales and the other riflemen were out of Dallas. 38

This is the nomenclature of the assassination team. That is the way John F. Kennedy met his death in Dallas.

At the top was JOHNSON, HOOVER, BLOOMFIELD, NAGY, DeMENIL, PRIO, JENKINS, HUNT, BAKER, JONES, McWILLIE, VON BRAUN, COHN, KORTH, CONNALLY and MURCHISON.

L.M. Bloomfield was in overall charge responsible only to Hoover and Johnson.

The second layer of participants with supervisory and working assignments under Bloomfield and the first group were Walter Dornberger, ex-Nazi General, Guy Bannister, Albert Osborne of A.C.C.C., E.E. Bradley of A.C.C.C., Morris Dalitz of Las Vegas, Major General John B. Medaris, Robert McKeown, Igor Voshinin, George Bouhe, Peter Gregory, Maurice Gatlin, Sergio Arcacha Smith, Lee Harvey Oswald, William Seymour, David Ferrie, T. Gonzales, Manuel Garcia Gonzales, Layton Martens, Gordon Novel, Walter Sheridan, William Dalzell, Paul Raigorodsky, Joe Bonanno, Dimitri Royster of A.C.C.C., Alex Carlson, George Mandel, Breck Wall, Clay Shaw, Joe Cody, Jake Kosloff, Mike McLaney, Ruth and Mike Paine, Igor Vagonov, Jack Bowen, Mike Ryan, Tammie True, Max Cherry, Patrick Hoy, David Hoy, James Powell and a number of others with limited assignments informed only enough to carry out the assignments with dispatch.

There were others involved also, but the published evidence up to 1969 is such that it would be unfair to name them.

Substantially the same management under Bloomfield of Montreal and J. Edgar Hoover planned and carried out the execution of Martin Luther King and Robert F. Kennedy. Albert Osborne had his riflemen in Memphis and one of his professionals fired the fatal shot at King. Ray was used as Oswald had earlier been used.

The book, The Strange Case of James Earl Ray reveals that Ray was a persistent visitor to the International Trade Mart in New Orleans39 just prior to the killing40 and that the real assassin of King entered the naval base near Memphis, Tennessee, where Division Five maintains a headquarters, only minutes after King's assassination. He was in the white Mustang involved in the mysterious chase described on police radio immediately after the killing. 41

On August 4,1969, James Earl Ray confirmed that Division Five of the FBI was used in the slaying of Martin Luther King, Jr. He stated on that date that Dr. King was killed by federal agents and that they used him to be a fall guy. 42

3 -  Roy Cohn, General John Medaris, Joe Bonanno, L.M. Bloomfield, the Syndicate and the Mafia.
Roy M. Cohn, using a representative of Intercontinental Company of Garland, Texas, a subsidiary of Lionel Corporation, provided a Dallas located agent to work with Ferenc Nagy. This agent was Ramon Buenrostro Cortez. Others with Cortez in Texas were Lorenzo Saunders and a Cuban exile, Ignacio Hernandez Garcia, alias Fernandez Feito. 43

In the September 5, 1969 issue of LIFE Magazine, it was reported that J. Edgar Hoover punished three of his FBI agents in New York for cooperating with the United States District Attorney in New York, Robert Morgenthau, in his prosecution against Roy M. Cohn on a number of felony charges. The LIFE report has this to say:
During the McCarthy inquisitions of the early 1950's, Cohn, as Senator McCarthy's chief counsel, had worked closely with (Louis B.) Nichols and the FBI in developing cases against suspected Communists. Agents spent weeks screening FBI security files and extracting them in memos for Cohn during the prolonged hearings. Through these years Cohn's friendship with Director Hoover also developed, and this was further cemented by their mutual regard for the multimillionaire boss of the huge Schenley distillery complex, Lewis Rosenstiel. (Cohn to this day addresses Rosenstiel variously as "commander-in-chief" or "supreme commander" and Rosenstiel refers to his younger friend as "field commander" or "sergeant major").When Nichols decided to retire from the FBI in 1957, Cohn set out to land him a job with Schenley. He had the willing support of another Rosenstiel friend, the late conservative columnist George Sokolsky, for whom Nichols represented 100% anti-Communist Americanism. At a social evening in August, 1967, Cohn and Sokolsky agreed to try to sell Nichols to Rosenstiel as prime executive timber.

The next night they made their pitch to Rosenstiel. Nichols, Cohn contended, was a genius, truly "one of the greatest men in America", whereupon Rosenstiel dispatched the Schenley private plane to Washington to fly Nichols and his wife to a conference at Rosenstiel's Greenwich, Conn. estate. Under Cohn's continued urging, Rosenstiel agreed to give Nichols a 10-year contract at $100,000 a year, plus stock options, in addition to arranging for Schenley's to buy and furnish a Manhattan apartment for Nichols. The whole package had to be an impressive introduction to corporate business for a middle-aged FBI man who had spent most of his adult life as a modestly paid public servant. Nichols later became executive vice president in charge of corporate development and public affairs and was elected to the Schenley board.

. . . Hoover personally ordered the three agents transferred out of New York. On May 2, each received a letter of censure and was given 30 days to report to his new post - (Donald) Jones to go to St. Louis, (Russell) Sullivan to Louisville, and (Jack) Knox to Pittsburgh.
Bureau men are accustomed to being ordered around in a fairly peremptory way, but such disciplinary transfers usually have a gloss of logic. This time the men were being moved for doing what in essence they were paid to do -- helping a U.S. Attorney protect his case. The ensuing rumble of protest was so loud that it could be heard even outside the Bureau, which virtually never happens. Morgenthau was furious. He confronted Assistant FBI Director John F. Malone, the top man in the New York field office, and Malone promptly reported the confrontation to Washington. The next day Hoover personally directed the New York field office to inform the three wayward agents that they now had until midnight the following day - 36 hours in all - to report totheir new stations, which they did.

LIFE went on to say:
"Cohn has cultivated a long friendship with Edwin Weisl, President Johnson's handpicked ambassador to New York's Democratic party. Weisl .... is a frequent Cohn luncheon companion."
Weisl was a long time friend of Johnson. As a matter of fact, during the 1950's, Weisl was the general counsel to the Senate Space Committee and he and Johnson were constantly together along with General John B. Medaris, then head of the Army Space Program. Among other groups, Medaris, during this program, had been in charge of Wernher Von Braun and the other Nazi space scientists at Huntsville, Alabama. 44

From 1960 to 1963, the ruling hierarchy of Lionel Corporation was General John B. Medaris, Roy Cohn and Joe Bonanno (Joe Bananas), a top Mafia man from New York, Las Vegas, Tucson and Montreal, Canada. Lionel Corporation during this period didover ninety percent of their business with the space agency and army ordnance furnishing such items as electronic equipment, rocket parts, chemical warfare agents and flame throwers. Also, during this period, General Medaris, though having retired in 1960, remained on active duty as special advisor to Army Intelligence in the Pentagon.45

The Lionel Corporation management was in direct contact with Louis Mortimer Bloomfield who, among other things, was a lawyer with offices in Tangiers, Morocco and Paris, France. Bloomfield was also the president of Heineken's Brewers, Ltd., Canada.

General Medaris was a director of one of the land speculation companies of Bobby Baker and Senator George Smathers in Florida. Joe Bonanno (Joe Bananas) in his capacity as a Mafia leader, was associated in the Havana and Las Vegas gambling with L.J. McWillie, Clifford Jones and others.46
In addition to J. Edgar Hoover's close association with Roy Cohn, he was also a long time friend of General Medaris. Joe Bonanno (Joe Bananas) had been a personal informer for J. Edgar Hoover for over a decade during 1963.47

Grant Stockdale, ex-United States Ambassador to Ireland and former George Smathers Administrative Assistant and a stock holder and officer in Bobby Baker's vending machine and Florida land transactions, knew and was closely associated with almost all of the top figures in the cabal.48

Shortly after President Kennedy's assassination on November 22, 1963, Grant Stockdale was pushed, shoved or fell from the fourteenth story of a Miami building and was killed immediately in the fall. As an officer in the Bobby Baker enterprises, Grant Stockdale had particular knowledge of a good part of the workings of the cabal and his death was one of a series made necessary to protect the group from public exposure.

A number of the conspirators' connections in the early 1960's and the various connections, organizations and financial conduits were revealed in books published in 1969.

Donald R. Cressey revealed in his work, Theft of a Nation, that a "Lelow" was the top guy of the Joseph L. Bonanno group in Montreal, Canada. The name was overheard on a telephone tap and it is believed to be Lazlo Nagy, a close relative of Ferenc Nagy.

There, it is also revealed, "the Bonanno family has for decades had other interests in Montreal which is a bet taking lay-off center for U.S. bookmakers and lay-off men re-insure their bets."

All of the investigators looking into Louis Mortimer Bloomfield's activities in connection with Permindex, the Swiss corporation, reported him as a banker in Montreal, Canada. He is not a banker as such, but a bet lay-off man is always referred to as a banker and this is where the confusion came. In fact, Bloomfield, as has been shown before, was the contract agent in charge of Division Five, the espionage agency of J. Edgar Hoover, and was a Montreal lawyer with offices in Paris, France, and Tangiers, Morocco.49

Among the large number of suppressed Warren Commission Documents were two which are of interest here. Their titles are:
1.Allegation Oswald was in Tangiers, Morocco
Document Number 11882.Allegation Oswald in Montreal, Summer 1963
Document Number 729
Poor's Register for 1963 lists the corporations and dummy corporations through which Bloomfield funneled the funds into and away from the Swiss banks. They are:
Credit Suisse (Canada), Ltd. (a subsidiary of CREDIT SUISSE of Berne, Switzerland)Manoir Industries, Ltd.
British Controlled Oil Fields, Ltd.
Grimaldi Siosa Lines (Canada), Ltd.
Berkeley Property Corp., Ltd.
Canscot Realty Investments, Ltd.
Canscot Building, Ltd.
Beaver Hall Investments, Ltd.
Israel Continental Oil Co., Ltd.
Lenzing Pulp and Paper Corp., Ltd.
Leviton Mfg. of Can., Ltd.
Mirelia Investments, Ltd.
Progress Luminaire, Ltd.
Protrade Commercial Devel., Ltd.
Heineken's Breweries (Can.), Ltd.
Ed Reid, in The Grim Reapers, reveals one of the other subsidiaries of CREDIT SUISSE and conduits through funds were funneled. There the connection of Bobby Baker, Morris Dalitz, Cliff Jones and others in the conspiracy and their connections with the conduits are shown. The principle funding agency for Permindex was the Credit Bank of Geneva, also known as Credit Suisse.50

The Syndicate Caribbean money structure is partially represented by the Bank of World Commerce, Ltd., which was incorporated in 1961 under British law in Nassau, Bahamas. Nevada's Cliff Jones and Ed Levinson were listed as stockholders.

Tied into the whole structure was a firm known in 1961 as Allied Empire, Inc., formerly Allied Television Films, Inc., of Beverly Hills, California. At that time Allied Empire was listed as a corporate stockholder with ten thousand shares of Bank of World Commerce stock, and was the holding company for the bank. 51

The financial structure has myriad connections. A score of Las Vegas gamblers and state and federal politicians were involved in the setup through Anjon Savings and Loan, account Number 804, and Merritt Savings and Loan of Baltimore, Maryland, which was bought out by Anjon Account Number 804. By means of a network of American and British corporate laws, Account Number 804's list of depositor-stockholders includes not only the Bank of World Commerce - $23,000 - but also a number of Las Vegans.

When all the records are put together, we find that the names of a number of individuals involved show up again and again in the complex web of gambling operations in various places on the North American continent and form compass points which chart a course to the truth of the operation.

Account Number 804 listed among its stockholders: Irving Devine, Las Vegas gambler whose wife was named by LIFE as a mob courier, Clifford Jones, Edward Levinson, John Pullman, one time president, Bank of World Commerce, M.A. Riddle, B.E. Seigelbaum and Sav-Way Investment Company.

The persons holding office and stock in the Bank of World Commerce at the time of its inception were: John Pullman, president and director; Edward Dawson Roberts, vice-president and director; Gerald Nelson Capps, secretary and treasurer; N. Roberts, director; Alvin I. Malnic, director, and Philip J. Mathew, director. Among the stockholders were; Leon C. Bloom, Jr., Clifford A. Jones, John Pullman, Irving Devine, Edward Levinson and Allied Empire, Inc.

On September 8, 1967, two of the individuals involved with the Bank of World Commerce and Anjon Savings and Loan, Account Number 804, were named by LIFE as "bagmen" for Meyer Lansky in the syndicate's far-flung gambling kingdom. A third, an alleged "bagwoman", is the wife of one of the Bank of World Commerce stockholders. Cash was carried by these people and others, the article stated, via the Bank of World Commerce into the financial arteries of an organization in the Bahamas known as the Atlas Bank, a working subsidiary of the CREDIT SUISSE in Berne, Switzerland. All three of the boards of directors and staffs of these money entities were what LIFE described as "studded with both skimmers and couriers" for the mob.52

Among the fund couriers listed was Ben Sigelbaum (Seigelbaum), sixty-five years old, political advisor and a long time associate of Ed Levinson in many of his business endeavors. Sigelbaum was also a business associate and confidant of Bobby Baker when the latter was Secretary of the Democratic Majority in the U.S. Senate. Also named was John Pullman, sixty-seven years old, original president of the Bank of World Commerce who once served a prison term for violating U.S. liquor laws and gave up his American citizenship in 1954 to become a Canadian. He now lives in Switzerland. Another courier was Sylvain Ferdmann, a thirty-three year old Swiss citizen described as in international banker and economist and, by U.S. authorities, as a fugitive accused of interfering with federal inquiries into the skimming racket in Las Vegas and elsewhere.53

Ida Devine, wife of Las Vegas gambler Irving (Niggy) Devine, traveled with Sigelbaum from Las Vegas to Miami with skimmed money for Lansky; Ferdmann is said to have carried the skim from the Bahamas to Lansky; and Lansky counted the money in Miami, took his own cut and dispensed other sums, via different couriers, to a few syndicate chieftains in the United States. At that point, the story went on, Ferdmann and Pullman carried the remainder of the funds to the CREDIT SUISSE in Berne, Switzerland and deposited them in numbered accounts in the Swiss haven for secret-money banking.54

An active part in the whole affair was carried out by Ferdmann, who organized the Atlas Bank as the Bahamas subsidiary of the CREDIT SUISSE of Berne, Switzerland.

The foregoing further confirms, Bloomfield, Permindex, Double-Chek and the connections with the same group as was connected earlier in Credit Bank of Geneva which is one and the same as CREDIT SUISSE, Miami Astaldo Vaduz, Double-Chek, Alex Carlson and the other Swiss and Liechtenstein Banks.

Fred Black of Washington, D.C. was a lobbyist for North American Aircraft and business associate with Bobby Baker and Clifford Jones. Black has confirmed the connection between Jones, McWillie, Baker, Ruby and ex-Cuban President, Prio. 55

After November 22, l963, Black publicly told many people in Washington, D.C. he had informed J. Edgar Hoover that an income tax conviction against him must be reversed or he would blow the lid off Washington with revelations of the assassination conspirators. 56

Lobbyist Black prevailed upon J. Edgar Hoover to admit error before the Supreme Court where his case was reversed in 1966. 57

Hoover did well to rescue Black from the conviction. Fred Black, while socially drinking with acquaintances in Washington has, on numerous occasions, been reported to have told of J. Edgar Hoover's and Bobby Baker's involvement in the assassination through Las Vegas, Miami and Havana gamblers. He named some of these as the Fox Brothers of Miami, McLaney of Las Vegas, New Orleans, Havana and Bahamas, Cliff Jones of Las Vegas, Carlos Prio Socarras of Havana, Bobby Baker and others. He stated there was also a connection in that some of the gamblers were Russian emigres. 58

Don Reynolds, Washington, D.C. businessman and associate of Bobby Baker and who had a number of questionable business transactions with Walter Jenkins on behalf of Lyndon Johnson, also gave testimony concerning Bobby Baker's involvement with the principals and he has stated on numerous public occasions that this group was behind the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. 59

Black was a stockholder with Baker in the Waikiki Savings & Loan Association in Honolulu. The other members were Clifford Jones and his law partner, Louis Weiner. There was the Farmers and Merchants State Bank in Tulsa where Jones joined Baker and Black in a stock deal and brought in a Miami pal by the name of Benny Sigelbaum, a courier of funds and documents to the Swiss banks for Permindex and the Syndicate.60

Of all the enterprises, none could compare with the controversial Serv-U Corp., a Baker-Black controlled vending-machine firm. Ed Levinson, president of the Fremont Hotel, Las Vegas, Nevada, was also a partner. Grant Stockdale, President of Serv-U and his money is covered later.61
Formed late in 1961, Serve-U Corporation provided vending machines for the automatic dispensing of food and drink in companies working on government contracts. In the next two years, Serv-U was awarded the lion-share of the vending business at three major aerospace firms - North American Aviation, Northrop Corporation and Thompson Ramo Wooldridge's Space Technology Laboratories.62

Baker and Black each bought stock in the company for $1 a share, while the others paid approximately $16 a share. Early in 1963 when Baker's Carousel Motel in Ocean City, Md. ran into financial difficulties, it was bought by Ser-U for $1 million.63

McWillie, Baker and Jones were involved in numerous transactions together, one of which was the incorporation of Greatamerica, the conglomerate company. The incorporating papers in Carson City, Nevada dated April 27, 1962 lists Abe Fortas as vice-president, general counsel and director. There is not sufficient evidence made public yet to connect Fortas with the assassination conspiracy.

One of the incorporators of Greatamerica was Clifford A. Jones, Nevada Lieutenant Governor from 1945-54 and a part owner and officer of the Thunderbird Hotel in Las Vegas. The gambling license issued to Jones and a partner in the hotel was revoked by the Nevada Tax Commission in 1955 on grounds that underworld figures had interests in the hotel. The decision was later overturned by the Nevada Supreme Court. 64

On January 5, 1966, Clifford Jones was indicted for perjury in connection with the grand jury investigation of Bobby Baker, former secretary to Senate Democrats. 65

Baker was indicted the same day for conspiracy, tax evasion and fraudulently converting to his own use nearly $100,000 from California savings and loan executives who thought they were making political contributions. 66

Clifford Jones was named a co-conspirator in that indictment. Baker was later convicted of failing to pay tax on the $100,000. Jones' case had not come to trial as of the summer of 1969. 67

Abe Fortas was Baker's attorney until Johnson became President in 1963. At that time he withdrew from the case. 68

The two other incorporators of Greatamerica were Helen Irving and Katherine Waldman, both of Las Vegas, and both also listed as directors of a Las Vegas concern which got a gambling license in June, 1964. The same three incorporators - Jones and the two women - were listed as incorporators when Greatamerica filed to do business in Texas on January 29, 1963, records in the Texas Secretary of State's Office in Austin showed. 69

Troy Post of Dallas, Texas was the originator of Greatamerica. It was Troy Post working with Bobby Baker and Clifford Jones who put the conglomerate together. Edward Levinson of the Fremont Hotel in Las Vegas was associated with Bobby Baker, Clifford Jones and L.J. McWillie in the plans for the assassination of President Kennedy. Levinson refused to answer any questions before the Senate Committee investigating the Bobby Baker case in 1964. Levinson took the Fifth Amendment seventy-five times.

Levinson and Morris Dalitz of the Desert Inn and Stardust in Las Vegas were also connected with Carlos Prio Socarras, ex-Cuban President, and Cliff Jones in all Havana gambling before and after Castro took control. Morris Dalitz, Roy M. Cohn, H.L. Hunt and J. Edgar Hoover had worked together for years in the anti-Communist movement. They had been active as a group for the Joe McCarthy investigations during the early 1950's. 70

Morris Dalitz, for years had been the head of the Cleveland, Ohio underworld and as such had been a business partner of Joe Bonanno of the Mafia and Lionel Corporation. Dalitz and Bonanno had been a constant target of Robert Kennedy in his organized crime fight. We shall later look into Bonanno's activities and connections.

Ed Reid in his 1969 book, The Grim Reapers, published a picture of Lyndon Johnson at Morris Dalitz' Stardust Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada, taken when Johnson and Bobby Baker met with Dalitz prior to the assassination. Johnson and Dalitz were photographed together a number of times during the important Las Vegas meeting. Also at the meeting with Johnson, Baker and Dalitz, the host, were Ed Levinson, Clifford Jones and Roy Cohn.

The great majority of FBI agents knew nothing about Hoover's actions and capable agents made a conspiracy case against Clifford Jones along with Bobby Baker in connection with their various financial transactions. Jones was indicted in 1964 for the conspiracy and a second indictment was made against him for perjury, that is for lying under oath when testifying for Baker.
J. Edgar Hoover pressured the Justice Department and Jones has not been brought to trial for more than five years after the charges. Hoover and Jones were personally close friends as well as a members of the assassination cabal.

Because of the wide publicity and public pressure, Hoover could not quash the Baker case without a trial. However, he worked through Abe Fortas on the Supreme Court and Baker's appeals were handled in such a way as to block any final decree and to bring questions on the case lasting into late 1969.

Hoover's adroit handling of the Baker case has made it questionable whether Baker will ever serve a day of his sentence.

History has recorded at least as early as World War II the definite working together of the Mafia and J. Edgar Hoover through his espionage department. From 1943 to 1946, Lucky Luciano and selected Mafia members throughout the United States worked on the docks of the various ports in the United States and in other areas with J. Edgar Hoover and the military intelligence agencies in preventing sabotage. Lucky Luciano's prison sentence was suspended in 1946 and he was allowed to leave the country to take up residence in Sicily. 71

Vito Genovese and his select Mafia group worked with Mussolini in Italy before and during World War II and were a part of Mussolini's Fascist governing regime. However, in 1943, as the American Forces worked their way up the Italian peninsula, the same Vito Genovese and his group became active agents for the United States intelligence agencies and a number of American officials wrote flowery recommendations for Mr. Genovese citing his American patriotism, intelligence and ingenuity in carrying out his assigned duties for the U.S. espionage agencies. 72




Chapter 9 - Hungarian Prime Minister, Ferenc Nagy's, Chronological Activities, and Wernher Von Braun.

1. June 1946. As Hungarian Prime Minister, Nagy visits the United States and receives permission for the U.S. Army in Germany to return fifty-two million dollars in gold reserves (taken from Hungary by Hitler) to Hungary. At the same time, Nagy spends one full week in Knoxville, Tennessee, Huntsville, Alabama and Muscle Shoals, Alabama, where he meets and visits with Nazi scientists working at American Redstone Arsenal and with Tennessee Valley Authority management and security agents under direction of the FBI at Knoxville, Tennessee and Muscle Shoals, Alabama. Albert Osborne, the A.C.C.C missionary from Mississippi, worked for the security division of the Tennessee Valley Authority since 1933, and he constantly reported to the Muscle Shoals, Huntsville, and Knoxville offices of TVA since 1942, the time he moved to Mexico.163

2. May 28, 1947. Prime Minister Nagy resigns his post from Basal, Switzerland, on the German-Swiss border.164

3. Fall of 1947. Ex-Prime Minister Nagy and family settle on 120 acre farm on outskirts of Herndon, Virginia, twenty-five miles from Washington, D.C., and Nagy becomes agent for any Communist speaking engagements for Division Five of the FBI.165

4. Fall of 1947 to 1951. Nagy covers United States and becomes closely associated with H.L. Hunt of Dallas, Texas.166

5. 1951. Nagy becomes president of Central Eastern European Committee of Refugee Exiles.167

6. 1956 to 1962. Nagy is President and on the Board of Directors of Permindex, a Swiss Corporation, and CMC, Rome, Italy, and commutes between Dallas, Washington, D.C., Herndon, Virginia, Switzerland and Italy.168

7. Spring 1963. Nagy settles in Dallas, Texas with offices in the 600 block of Fort Worth Avenue, ten blocks west of the Dallas School Book Depository Building. He is associated in the 600 block of Fort Worth Avenue in Dallas with Ralph Paul, C.A. "Pappy" Dolsen, Jack Ruby, and Sergio Arcacha Smith, the first two named being close business associates of Jack Ruby. Nagy's relatives make their residence at 1024 Magellan Circle Apartment D, right next door to Sylvia Odio's abode who was visited by the two Cubans and William Seymour on or about September 28, 1963. The 600 block address of Ferenc Nagy is three blocks from the Fort Worth Avenue address of Dal-Land Memorials, where Penn Jones reports the person impersonating Lee Oswald left clothing shortly prior to the assassination. The 600 block of Fort Worth Avenue is seven blocks west of the City Lincoln Mercury plant where a person impersonating Oswald tried to buy an automobile and made statements which could later be used to incriminate Oswald some few days before November 22, 1963.169

Then on November 22, 1963, Ferenc Nagy appears in more than thirty-five photographs at the site of the assassination. He is shown with an open umbrella at a point to the right of President Kennedy's car at Dealey Plaza. After the President's car passed within a few feet of Nagy, he suddenly closed his umbrella and the last and fatal shots were fired. He is depicted in pictures after the shots with his umbrella folded and then departing the area.170

Nagy is easily recognizable in a number of the photos taken by bystanders. Nagy's forward area of cranium is fully bald while the back one-fourth portion is covered and the hair is combed across the back section of his head.

Nagy, the former Prime Minister of Hungary, President of Permindex and upper echelon boss of Division Five of the FBI, along with Clay Shaw of New Orleans and L.M. Bloomfield of Montreal, Canada carried out his assignment in Dallas with dispatch, but he had his picture taken in the process.
From 1932 until 1945 Wernher Von Braun was Adolph Hitler's most dedicated Nazi rocket scientist. As a matter of fact, given a few more months time, Von Braun's "buzz bomb" and V-2 rocket in 1945 could have turned the tide and forced the Allies to seek something less than total victory over the Third Reich. The enthusiastic Nazi, Von Braun's V-2 rocket had killed thousands and thousands of British Isle residents, and the sound of the approach of the V-2 was terrorizing the entire English countryside.

In 1945, as the Russians were approaching Von Braun's rocket headquarters, he and one hundred and fifteen other of his Nazi rocket scientists escaped with valuable papers and traveled west in Germany until they could turn themselves in to the Allied armies on the West. Later the same year, Von Braun and the 115 other German scientists were removed to Fort Bliss, Texas, where they remained until 1950. In 1950, Von Braun and the others were moved on the the old Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama, where they remain to this date.

Von Braun, immediately upon arriving in the United States, made close personal friends with J. Edgar Hoover and Lyndon B. Johnson; and the relationship remained close with Von Braun working with Hoover in security in the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Redstone Arsenal; and later, beginning in 1958, they worked together in the security of the National Space Agency.
1958 was the year that Lyndon Johnson, as Majority Leader of the Senate, helped to push through the National Space Act and later, when he became Vice-President, he was made chairman of the National Space Committee.

Ferenc Nagy, ex-Hungarian Prime Minister, and Albert Alexander Osborne, alias John H. Bowen, the overseer of the assassins in Mexico, both reported consistently to the Muscle Shoals, Huntsville, Alabama area; and there is substantial evidence their contact in this area was Wernher Von Braun.171

Another of the Nazi space scientists who worked with the Cabal was Walter Dornberger. He had been the commanding officer of Wernher Von Braun while both were working for Adolph Hitler's rocket program. During the time period involved, Walter Dornberger was a directing officer in the Bell Aerospace Corporation along with Fred Korth. The former Nazi rocket officer was directly in charge of the assignment of Michael Paine to Bell Helicopter Corporation, a subsidiary in Fort Worth, Texas.

Paine's assignment was to provide a place for Marina Oswald during the approximate eight months prior to November 22, 1963. He provided for Marina to live with his wife, Ruth, in Irving Texas. Ray Krystinik testified to the Warren Commission that Michael Paine, immediately after Lee Oswald was captured at the theater, said, "The stupid ________, he was not even supposed to have a gun."

Von Braun first met Clay Shaw in 1945 when he, Walter Dornberger and about 150 other Nazi rocket scientists abandoned Peenemunde and traveled south to join the American forces in Germany close to the French border. The Nazis were brought to the Deputy Chief of Staff's headquarters where Major Clay Shaw was aide-de-camp to General Charles O. Thrasher, Deputy Chief, European Theatre of Operations. Von Braun, Dornberger, and Shaw maintained the relationship over the years through their mutual connection with the Defense Industrial Security Command, an operational arm of the counter-espionage division of the FBI.172

Ordnance Colonel Holgar N. Toftoy was in charge of the Nazi scientists, and Clay Shaw in the European Command section gave firm assistance to the transfer of 127 of them to the United States after they had spent about five months with the command in Europe.173
In the transfer of the Nazi rocket scientists, the services of Adolph Hitler's intelligence agency was used extensively, and Shaw, Von Braun, Dornberger and the others began a very close association with the Nazi agency and its commander.

The Bundesnachrichtendienst, better known as the Federal Intelligence Agency, or FIA, is largely dependent on the CIA, which subsidizes and controls it. The director in 1963 was Reinhard Gehlen, a former ex-Nazi Colonel 'recuperated' in August 1945 by Allen Dulles, who at the time headed the OSS in Switzerland and was in charge of American intelligence activities in occupied Germany.
The Solidarists and Gehlen had conceived the idea of the "Vlassov Army" which were Russian anti-communist troops, and Gehlen was given the responsibility for the underground that continued to operate behind Communist lines until 1950. In Poland, Gehlen's guerillas on March 28, 1947 murdered General Karol Swierczenski, Vice-Minister of Defense, who, under the name of Walter, had commanded the 14th International Brigade in Spain, and who served as the model for one of the characters in Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls.

Gehlen developed his network under the cover of a firm known as the "Economic Association for the Development of South Germany". He employed former members of the Gestapo such as Boemel-Burg, his intelligence chief in Berlin, and Franz Alfred Six, former SS General and one of Eichmann's subordinates, who was put in charge of Gehlen's contacts in Western Europe.
With the aid of other highly-qualified specialists, Gehlen successfully infiltrated East Germany and the Eastern European states, uncovered Soviet intelligence rings, planted agents among groups of expatriate workers, and took charge of the refugee organizations. He worked for the CIA, Solidarists, and J. Edgar Hoover.

After two years of intense and extensive investigation, Jim Garrison made a well-recorded public statement showing beyond doubt that the had traced the Nazi rocket scientists, the World Trade Center and Permindex, the Fascist Solidarists, American Council of Christian Churches, Free Cuba Committee, the gambling syndicate and Mafia, and NASA's Security Division into its umbrella controlling organization, the Defense Industrial Security Command of Columbus, Ohio and Huntsville, Alabama.

Garrison; had traced DISC into its larger umbrella, Division Five of the .i.FBI and the Defense Intelligence Agency supervised by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in the Pentagon. Here is how Garrison's statement came about. On October 31, 1968, Jim Garrison subpoenaed a Tacoma, Washington man for questioning in his continuing investigation of the John F. Kennedy assassination.
Fred Lee Crismon, a "bishop" of the Universal Life Church, was called to appear before the Orleans Parish Grand Jury on November 21, 1968. Garrison's office said that Crismon "has been engaged in undercover activity for a part of the industrial warfare complex for years. His cover is that of a 'preacher' and a 'person engaged in work to help the Gypsies.'"

Garrison's statement continued, "Our information indicates that since the early sixties, Crismon has made many trips to the New Orleans and Dallas areas in connection with his undercover work. He is a 'former' employee of the Boeing Aircraft Company in the sense that one defendant in the case is a 'former' employee of the Lockheed Aircraft Company in Los Angeles. In intelligence terminology, this ordinarily means that the connection still exists, but that the 'former employee' has moved into an underground operation."

Garrison said that evidence has been developed indicating a relationship between Crismon and "persons involved in the assassination of President John F. Kennedy."

Garrison further reiterated the general findings of his controversial investigation. "President Kennedy was murdered by elements of the industrial warfare complex working in concert with individuals in the United States Government. At the time of his murder, President Kennedy was working to end the Cold War.

The annual income of the defense industry was well over twenty billion dollars a year, and there were forces in that industry and in the U.S. Government which opposed the ending of the Cold War."
As has been pointed out earlier, Fred Lee Crismon used the alias John Howard Bowen and traveled and worked with the Mexico based assassins, Albert Osborne, Thomas Beckham and others. Bowen, alias Crismon, and Becham are shown in photographs taken November 22, 1963. In the picture on page 48, they are shown being taken after arrest by Dallas police across Dealey Plaza immediately after the President's murder.

Fred Lee Crismon, alias John H. Bowen, alias Dr. Jon Gold, and his partner, Thomas Edward Beckham, and Albert Osborne were all working for the Defense Industrial Security Command through the American Council of Christian Churches.

Garrison also revealed that the Grand Jury records confirmed Johnson's part when he said, "Who had the most to gain from the murder? Answer - Lyndon Johnson."

Crismon, alias John H. Bowen, and Beckham played only small roles in the big picture, but not Jack Ruby and Ferenc Nagy. Jack Ruby, agent for DISC through the Mafia and Syndicate had to be in the basement of Dallas City Hall two days after the assassination to dispose of a dangerous witness.
Ferenc Nagy, fellow director of Permindex and the World Trade Center, with Clay Shaw under L.M. Bloomfield, was also in the Dallas City Hall basement the morning of November 24, 1963. Buford Lee Beaty, a city detective, said Captain Tabbert "requested him to watch a man of obvious Hungarian origin who allegedly was in the basement to secure the release of two of his employees."174 Beaty and other policemen have confided to friends that the Hungarian was a former high official and was highly suspect on the morning of the 24th.

About five years after that memorable morning, a few American publications uncovered the fact that the Defense Industrial Security Command was employing agents provocateur.

These are the historic agents used over the centuries by despots to foment division among the population in order to give the government the people's support in suppressing an unpopular segment of the country involved. Provoking agents are also used effectively in creating a munitions market.

The New York Times reported in 1968 that Stokely Carmichael and Rap Brown were Federal agents provocateur. Other media named Eldridge Cleaver and a number of other trouble makers as provocative agents of the FBI. Such reports were not confirmed, but they do make interesting food for thought.

Sunday, 16 July 2017

Accession : Olympias

In the Name of The Gods - He will never be yours! 

Never

In my womb I carried my avenger!




The day Charles told Harry that Hewitt was not his father: It was the hardest conversation of his life... but the Prince had to end the cruel gossip

  • Harry endured endless gossip about his physical similarity to James Hewitt
  • As a soldier, Hewitt was one of young Harry's mentors
  • He was furious to be recalled from Afghanistan after Press broke embargo
By Chris Hutchins
Published: 23:20, 8 April 2013 Updated: 11:42, 9 April 2013

Warm-hearted, brave, but also recklessly impulsive, Prince Harry is as complex as he is charismatic. 

Here, in part three of a compelling new biography, we show how he idolised the soldier who many unfairly whispered was his true father...

Prince Harry with Prince Charles at polo
Heart to heart: Prince Harry with Prince Charles at the polo
Over dry martinis at Sandringham — mixed to the servants’ special recipe — there was just one question on the  Royal Family’s lips: ‘Where’s Harry?’
When someone joked: ‘He’s confined to barracks — he’s been a naughty boy’, the Queen smiled. Only she, and a tiny number of the family, were in on the secret.
The truth was that while Her Majesty and her guests were beginning their Christmas celebrations in 2007, 2nd Lieutenant Wales was more than 3,500 miles away in southern Helmand, war-torn Afghanistan’s most dangerous province.
Even as his relatives were plumping up the pillows on their four-poster beds Harry — the first senior royal to fight on a battlefield since Queen Victoria’s grandson Maurice in World War I — was surveying the tiny, cell-like room at Forward Operating Base Delhi that was his temporary home.
‘We couldn’t believe it when he arrived,’ says Lt Colonel Bill Connor. ‘There was no special security detail, no SAS. He came in like a regular soldier and that’s how he remained. This was a prince, the third in line to the British throne, yet he made it known that he wanted to be treated just as the junior officer he was.’
That Christmas Day, as the Queen and her party were cheered by well-wishers outside Sandringham church, Harry Wales and Bill Connor stepped outside for their morning exercises.
‘We were actually working out when the Taliban opened up,’ remembers Connor. ‘It was one of those fire-fights they regularly mounted from their trenches close by. Harry and I made a run for the buildings — we had no body armour on, just our PT kits. 
‘It was like something out of a war movie. Every now and again they would pop their heads above the trenches and fire at us with machine guns. And of course we would return their fire.’ 
Prince Charles and Prince Harry larking about in 1992
Playtime: Prince Charles and Prince Harry larking about in 1992
Later that day, during her annual  televised broadcast, the Queen must surely have had her beloved grandson in mind as she spoke the following heartfelt words: ‘I want to draw attention to another group of people who deserve our thoughts this Christmas: those who have given their lives or who have been severely wounded while serving with the Armed Forces in Afghanistan. 
‘I pray that all of you who are missing those who are dear to you will find strength and comfort in your families and friends. Wherever these words find you, and in whatever circumstances, I want to wish you all a blessed Christmas.’
The 23-year-old prince’s circumstances were at that moment without question dangerous and extremely uncomfortable. But he is unlikely to have felt disappointed about  missing out on the royals’ splendid occasion — he is, apparently, as  lukewarm as his mother Diana always was about spending Christmas at the royal Norfolk estate.
‘What am I missing the most?’ he said to one interviewer at the time. ‘Nothing really. I honestly don’t know what I miss at all: music, we’ve got music, we’ve got light, we’ve got food, we’ve got non- alcoholic drink. I don’t miss booze. It’s nice just to be here with all the guys, and just mucking about as one of the lads.’  
A psychiatrist who once treated his mother, the late Princess of Wales, believes that Harry’s career choice is a direct response to his royal background. ‘Harry’s insistence on going to war and living under dangerous and uncomfortable conditions in Afghanistan speaks volumes about wanting to gain experience outside his upbringing,’ he says. 
Princess Diana with Prince Harry in 1987
Happy little boy: Princess Diana with Prince Harry in 1987 on holiday in Mallorca
‘To be honest, I think he was bored with the way the royals live, and what they expect the world to provide for them.’
‘He’s one of those officers you can talk to — he’s laid-back and chilled out,’ adds L/Cpl Frankie O’Leary. 
‘Once a job needs doing he doesn’t shout and scream at you, he just asks you to do it. It just makes you want to work for the man so you  get the job done. That’s the way  he worked.’
On New Year’s Eve, as the congregation at Sandringham was being addressed about the ecological extravagance of Christmas lights, three 500lb bombs were dropped on Taliban bunkers by two U.S. F-15 jets — the first on Harry’s say-so. 
And the next day, January 1, 2008, he fired his first shots in combat, pumping rounds from a .50 machine gun in the direction of around 20 Taliban fighters who had been spotted approaching the British position. A shredded piece of sackcloth hanging in front of him provided the only cover. 
Would men have died as the result of his machine-gun fire? ‘It was extremely difficult to confirm Taliban “kills”,’ says Bill Connor. ‘I am sure Harry and his men killed or wounded Taliban, but it’s unlikely that numbers could be confirmed.
‘Harry never showed any emotions when he was doing his job. Part of war is suppressing emotions and he showed everyone he could do that. The bigger problem with guilt comes with those fights — and thank God we were not in them — in which the enemy used civilians as shields. 
Harry in his room at Eton in 2003
Growing up fast: Harry in his room at Eton in 2003

‘A soldier may have done everything right by the rules of engagement and yet accidentally killed a civilian. Those would be the times someone would have a hard time putting the kill behind them. 

‘I did not have to deal with any of those types of kills and, to the best of my knowledge, neither did Harry.’
A serving soldier who was there with Harry puts it more bluntly: ‘I don’t believe he would have lost a moment’s sleep over it. He’s a professional,  this is war and these men were  coming to kill us. He used that gun in exactly the manner intended.’

Harry, for his part, remained tight-lipped about Taliban deaths during his 2008 tour — although that would, controversially, change following his second Afghanistan stint earlier this year. But it’s reported he handed his camera to a fellow soldier to film his introduction to live action, saying: ‘They poke their heads up, and that’s it.’

In June 2008, Harry was presented with an Operational Service Medal for his time in Afghanistan by his aunt, Princess Anne. She was later overheard to remark crisply to a friend: ‘Well, at least when he goes on parade he will have a genuine medal to show for his bravery — unlike two (Charles and Edward) of my brothers.’

But perhaps even more important to Harry than even his medal was a letter he’d received from his brother at the start of his tour. In it William told him simply this: that their mother would have been ‘so proud’.
Prince Harry during a visit to the barracks
British controlled flight-line in Camp Bastion southern Afghanistan
Soldier boy: Harry in 1993, left, dressed up as a soldier and as the real thing in Afghanistan last year
It was more than 20 years since the man who first encouraged — perhaps even inspired — Harry to become a soldier walked into his life. From the moment he set eyes on the dashing cavalry officer James Hewitt, the little boy was awestruck.  

Although not yet three, he couldn’t hear enough of Hewitt’s tales of his military life. And he was delighted when, after bath time, he and William were allowed to come downstairs in their dressing gowns and tell ‘Mummy’s friend’ about their own escapades. 

The young Harry had been excited and frightened in equal measure, Diana told Hewitt, when a Cavalry colonel had once bowed and yelled ‘Sir!’ at him at the top of his voice.

While William preferred games and puzzles, Harry’s most treasured possessions in the nursery at Highgrove were a set of toy soldiers and a model of a  Panzer tank. 

And his favourite item of clothing was a miniature uniform Hewitt had made for him by his regimental tailor before one of the highlights of his early years — a visit to Combermere Barracks, home of the Household Cavalry.

It was there, clad in the minuscule flak jacket, Army trousers and beret which ‘Uncle James’ had shown him exactly how to position, that he clambered on to a real tank and announced: ‘I’m going to be a soldier when I grow up.’ 
Harry was inconsolable, it’s said,  when Hewitt was posted abroad and his mother began her relationship with James Gilbey, whom the young prince said was ‘no fun’. 
Nor was he impressed with his mother’s later lover, Dr Hasnat Khan. The heart surgeon was pleasant and polite, but he was no brave warrior.
James Hewitt would, however, come back into Harry’s life in the most dramatic fashion. In 2002, he released a statement announcing that, contrary to recurring speculation, he was not the prince’s father. 
Harry is just as enthusiastic about charity work as his parents and connects well with people he meets around the world
Fun-loving: Harry is just as enthusiastic about charity work as his parents and connects well with people he meets around the world
‘I can absolutely assure you that I am not,’ he said. ‘Admittedly the colour of his hair is similar to mine and people say we look alike. I have never encouraged these comparisons and although I was with Diana for a long time I must state once and for all that I’m not  Harry’s father.
‘When I met Diana he was already a toddler. I have to say he’s a much  more handsome chap than I  ever was.’ 
Even now there are some who fail to accept Hewitt’s declaration. One intellectual, who sees Charles regularly, tells me: ‘I know what the official line is, but I still find the resemblance extraordinary. 
‘Quite recently I was at a table with James Hewitt and, never mind his hair, when you look into his eyes it’s like you are looking into  Harry’s. There is not a scintilla  of difference.’
As for Harry, Hewitt’s announcement came as no surprise. Prince Charles, his real father, had beaten the soldier to the punch many years previously. 
Aware of how cruel gossip can be, he had summoned his younger son for a heart-to-heart meeting in the summer before he started at Eton. He warned him that he would hear such rumours, and assured him they were not true.
Harry listened to his father’s difficult speech without interrupting. He had always looked up to Hewitt, a war hero, a real-life tank commander in the First Gulf War and an immensely likeable man. Hewitt had been a true mentor to the boy, and Charles knew it.
It was, according to the account relayed to me, one of the hardest moments in the heir’s life. No longer could the fact be concealed that Diana really had been in love with the dashing officer. Despite the pain it caused Charles to deliver the message, however, he handled it with great courage.
Harry thanked him, but he hung on to his admiration for his mother’s soldier lover until Hewitt subsequently sold his story of the affair — an error of judgment for which he has since been almost universally condemned.
The bravery he has demonstrated during his military career has done much to silence Prince Harry’s critics. A rousing speech he made in December 2011 did nothing to detract from the public’s admiration. 
‘It is often said of our Armed Forces that they are ordinary people doing extraordinary things,’ Harry told a predominantly military and celebrity audience. ‘Well, I don’t buy that. Ordinary people don’t run out under withering enemy rocket and heavy machine-gun fire to rescue a wounded comrade. 
‘Ordinary people don’t brave monsoon conditions dangling on a winch line to rescue people. For that matter, ordinary people don’t put their lives on the line for distant folk, such as the Afghans, who need our help and are now turning their country round because of it.’
Stirring stuff, indeed, and it earned him a standing ovation from those watching transmission of the speech in Afghanistan — those who see him not as a red-carpet royal but as a loyal comrade-in-arms.

TRUE PASSION ON THE NIGHT HE WAS CONCEIVED 

Nothing upsets Harry more, say friends, than suggestions that he was born to two people who did not even like, let alone love, each other. 
But, according to Princess Diana’s close friend, the late Lady ‘Kanga’ Tryon, he need have no worries on that score. 
Kanga once told me that Diana had confided to her, over a ‘tiddly lunch’ in  Knightsbridge in London, that the very opposite was the case.
‘She said she and Charles had been having a  fantastic time,’ Kanga revealed. ‘It was the Christmas of 1983 and everyone was in a party mood. There was lots of, shall we say, intimacy going on and she giggled like a naughty schoolgirl when she told me she had worn fake boobs to a party that evening.
‘She said it was the most romantic night of her life. Charles had given her a very special brooch for her Christmas present and had their bedroom filled with flowers. 
‘She definitely was neither bulimic nor depressed at that time, so you can take it from me: Harry was born out of love.’
But the positive publicity was put in severe jeopardy after it was reported in December last year that during his second tour of Afghanistan he had killed a Taliban commander. Whatever the truth of the matter, the stories put the lives of Harry and his comrades at even greater risk.
Harry went on to let himself down when, during an interview he gave for transmission after his return, he made some ill-advised comments about killing Taliban fighters. 
He likened pressing the buttons which released his Apache’s Hellfire missiles and 30mm cannon to playing computer games off-duty, saying it was ‘a joy ... because I’m one of those people who loves playing PlayStation and Xbox, so with my thumbs I like to think that I’m probably quite useful’.
fury at leaving the frontline
His boast — and that’s how it was perceived by many — raised further fears for his safety and brought about an upgrade in his security. 
Harry further incensed his critics when he complained that life in the Army was ‘as normal as it was going to get. For me it’s not that normal because I go into the cookhouse and everyone has a good old gawp, and that’s one thing I dislike about being here.’ 
A senior officer who refused to give his name observed that Captain Wales had adopted the language of a ‘spoiled, truculent teenager’. 
A Palace source confirms that Prince Charles simply shook his head and said: ‘This should never have happened. Harry needs some lessons in PR.’  
And one of the young soldier’s close circle said the day after his comments about killing Taliban were broadcast: ‘Oh dear, there’s Harry going over the top again. 
‘He has only himself to blame, though. Someone should have been there to guide him when he gave that interview. It gave a totally wrong impression of the Harry I know. It’s such a shame, because he did a brilliant job out there.’
But, as we shall see tomorrow, it is perhaps Harry Wales’s all-too-human failings, combined with his irrepressible love of life, that have made him so popular with the public — and an increasingly important part of the royal family.
As William told him, Diana would be so very proud.
Extracted from Harry:  The People’s Prince by Chris Hutchins, to be published by The Robson Press on April 25 at £20.  
© 2013 Chris Hutchins. To order  a copy for £15 (incl p&p), call  0844 472 4157



Alexander 
(died 323 B.C.E.) 

By Plutarch 

Written 75 A.C.E. 

Translated by John Dryden

IT being my purpose to write the lives of Alexander the king, and of Caesar, by whom Pompey was destroyed, the multitude of their great actions affords so large a field that I were to blame if I should not by way of apology forewarn my reader that I have chosen rather to epitomize the most celebrated parts of their story, than to insist at large on every particular circumstance of it. It must be borne in mind that my design is not to write histories, but lives. And the most glorious exploits do not always furnish us with the clearest discoveries of virtue or vice in men; sometimes a matter of less moment, an expression or a jest, informs us better of their characters and inclinations, than the most famous sieges, the greatest armaments, or the bloodiest battles whatsoever. Therefore as portrait-painters are more exact in the lines and features of the face, in which the character is seen, than in the other parts of the body, so I must be allowed to give my more particular attention to the marks and indications of the souls of men, and while I endeavour by these to portray their lives, may be free to leave more weighty matters and great battles to be treated of by others. 

It is agreed on by all hands, that on the father's side, Alexander descended from Hercules by Caranus, and from Aeacus by Neoptolemus on the mother's side. His father Philip, being in Samothrace, when he was quite young, fell in love there with Olympias, in company with whom he was initiated in the religious ceremonies of the country, and her father and mother being both dead, soon after, with the consent of her brother, Arymbas, he married her. The night before the consummation of their marriage, she dreamed that a thunderbolt fell upon her body, which kindled a great fire, whose divided flames dispersed themselves all about, and then were extinguished. And Philip, some time after he was married, dreamt that he sealed up his wife's body with a seal, whose impression, as be fancied, was the figure of a lion. Some of the diviners interpreted this as a warning to Philip to look narrowly to his wife; but Aristander of Telmessus, considering how unusual it was to seal up anything that was empty, assured him the meaning of his dream was that 



The queen was with child of a boy, who would one day prove as stout and courageous as a lion. 

Once, moreover, a serpent was found lying by Olympias as she slept, which more than anything else, it is said, abated Philip's passion for her; and whether he feared her as an enchantress, or thought she had commerce with some god, and so looked on himself as excluded, he was ever after less fond of her conversation. Others say, that the women of this country having always been extremely addicted to the enthusiastic Orphic rites, and the wild worship of Bacchus (upon which account they were called Clodones, and Mimallones), imitated in many things the practices of the Edonian and Thracian women about Mount Haemus, from whom the word threskeuein seems to have been derived, as a special term for superfluous and over-curious forms of adoration; and that Olympias, zealously, affecting these fanatical and enthusiastic inspirations, to perform them with more barbaric dread, was wont in the dances proper to these ceremonies to have great tame serpents about her, which sometimes creeping out of the ivy in the mystic fans, sometimes winding themselves about the sacred spears, and the women's chaplets, made a spectacle which men could not look upon without terror. 

Philip, after this vision, sent Chaeron of Megalopolis to consult the oracle of Apollo at Delphi, by which he was commanded to perform sacrifice, and henceforth pay particular honour, above all other gods, to Ammon; and was told he should one day lose that eye with which he presumed to peep through that chink of the door, when he saw the god, under the form of a serpent, in the company of his wife.
 


Eratosthenes says that Olympias, when she attended Alexander on his way to the army in his first expedition, told him the secret of his birth, and bade him behave himself with courage suitable to his divine extraction. Others again affirm that she wholly disclaimed any pretensions of the kind, and was wont to say, 


"When will Alexander leave off slandering me to Juno?" 

Alexander was born the sixth of Hecatombaeon, which month the Macedonians call Lous, the same day that the temple of Diana at Ephesus was burnt; 



which Hegesias of Magnesia makes the occasion of a conceit, frigid enough to have stopped the conflagration. 

The temple, he says, took fire and was burnt while its mistress was absent, assisting at the birth of Alexander. 


And all the Eastern soothsayers who happened to be then at Ephesus, looking upon the ruin of this temple to be the forerunner of some other calamity, ran about the town, beating their faces, and crying that this day had brought forth something that would prove fatal and destructive to all Asia. 

Just after Philip had taken Potidaea, he received these three messages at one time, that Parmenio had overthrown the Illyrians in a great battle, that his race-horse had won the course at the Olympic games, and that his wife had given birth to Alexander; with which being naturally well pleased, as an addition to his satisfaction, he was assured by the diviners that a son, whose birth was accompanied with three such successes, could not fail of being invincible. 

The statues that gave the best representation of Alexander's person were those of Lysippus (by whom alone he would suffer his image to be made), those peculiarities which many of his successors afterwards and his friends used to affect to imitate, the inclination of his head a little on one side towards his left shoulder, and his melting eye, having been expressed by this artist with great exactness. But Apelles, who drew him with thunderbolts in his hand, made his complexion browner and darker than it was naturally; for he was fair and of a light colour, passing into ruddiness in his face and upon his breast. Aristoxenus in his Memoirs tells us that a most agreeable odour exhaled from his skin, and that his breath and body all over was so fragrant as to perfume the clothes which he wore next him; the cause of which might probably be the hot and adust temperament of his body. For sweet smells, Theophrastus conceives, are produced by the concoction of moist humours by heat, which is the reason that those parts of the world which are driest and most burnt up afford spices of the best kind and in the greatest quantity; for the heat of the sun exhausts all the superfluous moisture which lies in the surface of bodies, ready to generate putrefaction. And this hot constitution, it may be, rendered Alexander so addicted to drinking, and so choleric. His temperance, as to the pleasures of the body, was apparent in him in his very childhood, as he was with much difficulty incited to them, and always used them with great moderation; though in other things be was extremely eager and vehement, and in his love of glory, and the pursuit of it, he showed a solidity of high spirit and magnanimity far above his age. For he neither sought nor valued it upon every occasion, as his father Philip did (who affected to show his eloquence almost to a degree of pedantry, and took care to have the victories of his racing chariots at the Olympic games engraven on his coin), but when he was asked by some about him, whether he would run a race in the Olympic games, as he was very swift-footed, he answered, he would, if he might have kings to run with him. Indeed, he seems in general to have looked with indifference, if not with dislike, upon the professed athletes. He often appointed prizes, for which not only tragedians and musicians, pipers and harpers, but rhapsodists also, strove to outvie one another; and delighted in all manner of hunting and cudgel-playing, but never gave any encouragement to contests either of boxing or of the pancratium. 

While he was yet very young, he entertained the ambassadors from the King of Persia, in the absence of his father, and entering much into conversation with them, gained so much upon them by his affability, and the questions he asked them, which were far from being childish or trifling (for he inquired of them the length of the ways, the nature of the road into inner Asia, the character of their king, how he carried himself to his enemies, and what forces he was able to bring into the field), that they were struck with admiration of him, and looked upon the ability so much famed of Philip to be nothing in comparison with the forwardness and high purpose that appeared thus early in his son. Whenever he heard Philip had taken any town of importance, or won any signal victory, instead of rejoicing at it altogether, he would tell his companions that his father would anticipate everything, and leave him and them no opportunities of performing great and illustrious actions. For being more bent upon action and glory than either upon pleasure or riches, he esteemed all that he should receive from his father as a diminution and prevention of his own future achievements; and would have chosen rather to succeed to a kingdom involved in troubles and wars, which would have afforded him frequent exercise of his courage, and a large field of honour, than to one already flourishing and settled, where his inheritance would be an inactive life, and the mere enjoyment of wealth and luxury. 

The care of his education, as it might be presumed, was committed to a great many attendants, preceptors, and teachers, over the whole of whom Leonidas, a near kinsman of Olympias, a man of an austere temper, presided, who did not indeed himself decline the name of what in reality is a noble and honourable office, but in general his dignity, and his near relationship, obtained him from other people the title of Alexander's foster-father and governor. But he who took upon him the actual place and style of his pedagogue was Lysimachus the Acarnanian, who, though he had nothing to recommend him, but his lucky fancy of calling himself Phoenix, Alexander Achilles and Philip Peleus, was therefore well enough esteemed, and ranked in the next degree after Leonidas. 

Philonicus the Thessalian brought the horse Bucephalus to Philip, offering to sell him for thirteen talents; but when they went into the field to try him, they found him so very vicious and unmanageable, that he reared up when they endeavoured to mount him, and would not so much as endure the voice of any of Philip's attendants. Upon which, as they were leading him away as wholly useless and untractable, Alexander, who stood by, said, "What an excellent horse do they lose for want of address and boldness to manage him!" Philip at first took no notice of what he said; but when he heard him repeat the same thing several times, and saw he was much vexed to see the horse sent away, "Do you reproach," said he to him, "those who are older than yourself, as if you knew more, and were better able to manage him than they?" "I could manage this horse," replied he, "better than others do." "And if you do not," said Philip, "what will you forfeit for your rashness?" "I will pay," answered Alexander, "the whole price of the horse." At this the whole company fell a-laughing; and as soon as the wager was settled amongst them, he immediately ran to the horse, and taking hold of the bridle, turned him directly towards the sun, having, it seems, observed that he was disturbed at and afraid of the motion of his own shadow; then letting him go forward a little, still keeping the reins in his hands, and stroking him gently when he found him begin to grow eager and fiery, he let fall his upper garment softly, and with one nimble leap securely mounted him, and when he was seated, by little and little drew in the bridle, and curbed him without either striking or spurring him. Presently, when he found him free from all rebelliousness, and only impatient for the course, he let him go at full speed, inciting him now with a commanding voice, and urging him also with his heel. Philip and his friends looked on at first in silence and anxiety for the result, till seeing him turn at the end of his career, and come back rejoicing and triumphing for what he had performed, they all burst out into acclamations of applause; and his father shedding tears, it is said, for joy, kissed him as he came down from his horse, and in his transport said, "O my son, look thee out a kingdom equal to and worthy of thyself, for Macedonia is too little for thee." 

After this, considering him to be of a temper easy to be led to his duty by reason, but by no means to be compelled, he always endeavoured to persuade rather than to command or force him to anything; and now looking upon the instruction and tuition of his youth to be of greater difficulty and importance than to be wholly trusted to the ordinary masters in music and poetry, and the common school subjects, and to require, as Sophocles says- 

"The bridle and the rudder too," he sent for Aristotle, the most learned and most celebrated philosopher of his time, and rewarded him with a munificence proportionable to and becoming the care he took to instruct his son. For he repeopled his native city Stagira, which he had caused to be demolished a little before, and restored all the citizens, who were in exile or slavery, to their habitations. As a place for the pursuit of their studies and exercise, he assigned the temple of the Nymphs, near Mieza, where, to this very day, they show you Aristotle's stone seats, and the shady walks which he was wont to frequent. It would appear that Alexander received from him not only his doctrines of Morals and of Politics, but also something of those more abstruse and profound theories which these philosophers, by the very names they gave them, professed to reserve for oral communication to the initiated, and did not allow many to become acquainted with. For when he was in Asia, and heard Aristotle had published some treatises of that kind, he wrote to him, using very plain language to him in behalf of philosophy, the following letter. "Alexander to Aristotle, greeting. You have not done well to publish your books of oral doctrine; for what is there now that we excel others in, if those things which we have been particularly instructed in be laid open to all? For my part, I assure you, I had rather excel others in the knowledge of what is excellent, than in the extent of my power and dominion. Farewell." And Aristotle, soothing this passion for pre-eminence, speaks, in his excuse for himself, of these doctrines as in fact both published and not published: as indeed, to say the truth, his books on metaphysics are written in a style which makes them useless for ordinary teaching, and instructive only, in the way of memoranda, for those who have been already conversant in that sort of learning. 

Doubtless also it was to Aristotle that he owed the inclination he had, not to the theory only, but likewise to the practice of the art of medicine. For when any of his friends were sick, he would often prescribe them their course of diet, and medicines proper to their disease, as we may find in his epistles. He was naturally a great lover of all kinds of learning and reading; and Onesicritus informs us that he constantly laid Homer's Iliads, according to the copy corrected by Aristotle, called the casket copy, with his dagger under his pillow, declaring that he esteemed it a perfect portable treasure of all military virtue and knowledge. When he was in the upper Asia, being destitute of other books, he ordered Harpalus to send him some; who furnished him with Philistus's History, a great many of the plays of Euripides, Sophocles, and Aeschylus, and some dithyrambic odes, composed by Telestes and Philoxenus. For a while he loved and cherished Aristotle no less, as he was wont to say himself, than if he had been his father, giving this reason for it, that as he had received life from the one, so the other had taught him to live well. But afterwards, upon some mistrust of him, yet not so great as to make him do him any hurt, his familiarity and friendly kindness to him abated so much of its former force and affectionateness, as to make it evident he was alienated from him. However, his violent thirst after and passion for learning, which were once implanted, still grew up with him, and never decayed; as appears by his veneration of Anaxarchus, by the present of fifty talents which he sent to Xenocrates, and his particular care and esteem of Dandamis and Calanus. 

While Philip went on his expedition against the Byzantines, he left Alexander, then sixteen years old, his lieutenant in Macedonia, committing the charge of his seal to him; who, not to sit idle, reduced the rebellious Maedi, and having taken their chief town by storm, drove out the barbarous inhabitants, and planting a colony of several nations in their room, called the place after his own name, Alexandropolis. At the battle of Chaeronea, which his father fought against the Grecians, he is said to have been the first man that charged the Thebans' sacred band. And even in my remembrance, there stood an old oak near the river Cephisus, which people called Alexander's oak, because his tent was pitched under it. And not far off are to be seen the graves of the Macedonians who fell in that battle. This early bravery made Philip so fond of him, that nothing pleased him more than to hear his subjects call himself their general and Alexander their king. 

But the disorders of his family, chiefly caused by his new marriages and attachments (the troubles that began in the women's chambers spreading, so to say, to the whole kingdom), raised various complaints and differences between them, which the violence of Olympias, a woman of a jealous and implacable temper, made wider, by exasperating Alexander against his father. 


Among the rest, this accident contributed most to their falling out. 

At the wedding of Cleopatra, whom Philip fell in love with and married, she being much too young for him, her uncle Attalus in his drink desired the Macedonians would implore the gods to give them a lawful successor to the kingdom by his niece. 

This so irritated Alexander, that throwing one of the cups at his head, 

"You villain," 
said he, 
"what, am I then a bastard?" 

Then Philip, taking Attalus's part, rose up and would have run his son through; but by good fortune for them both, either his over-hasty rage, or the wine he had drunk, made his foot slip, so that he fell down on the floor. 

At which Alexander reproachfully insulted over him: 


"See there," 
said he, 
"the man who makes preparations to pass out of Europe into Asia, overturned in passing from one seat to another." 

After this debauch, he and his mother Olympias withdrew from Philip's company, and when he had placed her in Epirus, he himself retired into Illyria. 

About this time, Demaratus the Corinthian, an old friend of the family, who had the freedom to say anything among them without offence, coming to visit Philip, after the first compliments and embraces were over, Philip asked him whether the Grecians were at amity with one another. "It ill becomes you," replied Demaratus, "to be so solicitous about Greece, when you have involved your own house in so many dissensions and calamities." He was so convinced by this seasonable reproach, that he immediately sent for his son home, and by Demaratus's mediation prevailed with him to return. But this reconciliation lasted not long; for when Pixodorus, viceroy of Caria, sent Aristocritus to treat for a match between his eldest daughter and Philip's son, Arrhidaeus, hoping by this alliance to secure his assistance upon occasion, Alexander's mother, and some who pretended to be his friends, presently filled his head with tales and calumnies, as if Philip, by a splendid marriage and important alliance, were preparing the way for settling the kingdom upon Arrhidaeus. In alarm at this, he despatched Thessalus, the tragic actor, into Caria, to dispose Pixodorus to slight Arrhidaeus, both illegitimate and a fool, and rather to accept of himself for his son-in-law. This proposition was much more agreeable to Pixodorus than the former. But Philip, as soon as he was made acquainted with this transaction, went to his son's apartment, taking with him Philotas, the son of Parmenio, one of Alexander's intimate friends and companions, and there reproved him severely, and reproached him bitterly, that he should be so degenerate, and unworthy of the power he was to leave him, as to desire the alliance of a mean Carian, who was at best but the slave of a barbarous prince. Nor did this satisfy his resentment, for he wrote to the Corinthians to send Thessalus to him in chains, and banished Harpalus, Nearchus, Erigyius, and Ptolemy, his son's friends and favourites, whom Alexander afterwards recalled and raised to great honour and preferment. 

Not long after this, Pausanias, having had an outrage done to him at the instance of Attalus and Cleopatra, when he found he could get no reparation for his disgrace at Philip's hands, watched his opportunity and murdered him. The guilt of which fact was laid for the most part upon Olympias, who was said to have encouraged and exasperated the enraged youth to revenge; and some sort of suspicion attached even to Alexander himself, who, it was said, when Pausanias came and complained to him of the injury he had received, repeated the verse out of Euripides's Medea- 

"On husband, and on father, and on bride." However, he took care to find out and punish the accomplices of the conspiracy severely, and was very angry with Olympias for treating Cleopatra inhumanly in his absence. 

Alexander was but twenty years old when his father was murdered, and succeeded to a kingdom, beset on all sides with great dangers and rancorous enemies. For not only the barbarous nations that bordered on Macedonia were impatient of being governed by any but their own native princes, but Philip likewise, though he had been victorious over the Grecians, yet, as the time had not been sufficient for him to complete his conquest and accustom them to his sway, had simply left all things in a general disorder and confusion. It seemed to the Macedonians a very critical time; and some would have persuaded Alexander to give up all thought of retaining the Grecians in subjection by force of arms, and rather to apply himself to win back by gentle means the allegiance of the tribes who were designing revolt, and try the effect of indulgence in arresting the first motions towards revolution. But he rejected this counsel as weak and timorous, and looked upon it to be more prudence to secure himself by resolution and magnanimity, than, by seeming to truckle to any, to encourage all to trample on him. In pursuit of this opinion, he reduced the barbarians to tranquillity, and put an end to all fear of war from them, he gave rapid expedition into their country as far as the river Danube, where he gave Syrmus, King of the Triballians, an entire overthrow. And hearing the Thebans were in revolt, and the Athenians in correspondence with them, he immediately marched through the pass of Thermopylae, saying that to Demosthenes, who had called him a child while he was in Illyria and in the country of the Triballians, and a youth when he was in Thessaly, he would appear a man before the walls of Athens. 

When he came to Thebes, to show how willing he was to accept of their repentance for what was past, he only demanded of them Phoenix and Prothytes, the authors of the rebellion, and proclaimed a general pardon to those who would come over to him. But when the Thebans merely retorted by demanding Philotas and Antipater to be delivered into their hands, and by a proclamation on their part invited all who would assert the liberty of Greece to come over to them, he presently applied himself to make them feel the last extremities of war. The Thebans indeed defended themselves with a zeal and courage beyond their strength, being much outnumbered by their enemies. But when the Macedonian garrison sallied out upon them from the citadel, they were so hemmed in on all sides that the greater part of them fell in the battle; the city itself being taken by storm, was sacked and razed. Alexander's hope being that so severe an example might terrify the rest of Greece into obedience, and also in order to gratify the hostility of his confederates, the Phocians and Plataeans. So that, except the priests, and some few who had heretofore been the friends and connections of the Macedonians, the family of the poet Pindar, and those who were known to have opposed the public vote for the war, all the rest, to the number of thirty thousand, were publicly sold for slaves; and it is computed that upwards of six thousand were put to the sword. 

Among the other calamities that befell the city, it happened that some Thracian soldiers, having broken into the house of a matron of high character and repute, named Timoclea, their captain, after he had used violence with her, to satisfy his avarice as well as lust, asked her, if she knew of any money concealed; to which she readily answered she did, and bade him follow her into a garden, where she showed him a well, into which, she told him, upon the taking of the city, she had thrown what she had of most value. The greedy Thracian presently stooping down to view the place where he thought the treasure lay, she came behind him and pushed him into the well, and then flung great stones in upon him, till she had killed him. After which, when the soldiers led her away bound to Alexander, her very mien and gait showed her to be a woman of dignity, and of a mind no less elevated, not betraying the least sign of fear or astonishment. And when the king asked her who she was, "I am," said she, "the sister of Theagenes, who fought the battle of Chaeronea with your father Philip, and fell there in command for the liberty of Greece." Alexander was so surprised, both at what she had done and what she said, that he could not choose but give her and her children their freedom to go whither they pleased. 

After this he received the Athenians into favour, although they had shown themselves so much concerned at the calamity of Thebes that out of sorrow they omitted the celebration of the Mysteries, and entertained those who escaped with all possible humanity. Whether it were, like the lion, that his passion was now satisfied, or that, after an example of extreme cruelty, he had a mind to appear merciful, it happened well for the Athenians; for he not only forgave them all past offences, but bade them look to their affairs with vigilance, remembering that if he should miscarry, they were likely to be the arbiters of Greece. Certain it is, too, that in aftertime he often repented of his severity to the Thebans, and his remorse had such influence on his temper as to make him ever after less rigorous to all others. He imputed also the murder of Clitus, which he committed in his wine, and the unwillingness of the Macedonians to follow him against the Indians, by which his enterprise and glory was left imperfect, to the wrath and vengeance of Bacchus, the protector of Thebes. And it was observed that whatsoever any Theban, who had the good fortune to survive this victory, asked of him, he was sure to grant without the least difficulty. 

Soon after, the Grecians, being assembled at the Isthmus, declared their resolution of joining with Alexander in the war against the Persians, and proclaimed him their general. While he stayed here, many public ministers and philosophers came from all parts to visit him and congratulated him on his election, but contrary to his expectation, Diogenes of Sinope, who then was living at Corinth, thought so little of him, that instead of coming to compliment him, he never so much as stirred out of the suburb called the Cranium, where Alexander found him lying along in the sun. When he saw so much company near him, he raised himself a little, and vouchsafed to look upon Alexander; and when he kindly asked him whether he wanted anything, "Yes," said he, "I would have you stand from between me and the sun." Alexander was so struck at this answer, and surprised at the greatness of the man, who had taken so little notice of him, that as he went away he told his followers, who were laughing at the moroseness of the philosopher, that if he were not Alexander, he would choose to be Diogenes. 

Then he went to Delphi, to consult Apollo concerning the success of the war he had undertaken, and happening to come on one of the forbidden days, when it was esteemed improper to give any answer from the oracle, he sent messengers to desire the priestess to do her office; and when she refused, on the plea of a law to the contrary, he went up himself, and began to draw her by force into the temple, until tired and overcome with his importunity, "My son," said she, "thou art invincible." Alexander taking hold of what she spoke, declared he had received such an answer as he wished for, and that it was needless to consult the god any further. Among other prodigies that attended the departure of his army, the image of Orpheus at Libethra, made of cypress-wood, was seen to sweat in great abundance, to the discouragement of many. But Aristander told him that, far from presaging any ill to him, it signified he should perform acts so important and glorious as would make the poets and musicians of future ages labour and sweat to describe and celebrate them. 

His army, by their computation who make the smallest amount, consisted of thirty thousand foot and four thousand horse; and those who make the most of it, speak but of forty-three thousand foot and three thousand horse. Aristobulus says, he had not a fund of above seventy talents for their pay, nor had he more than thirty days' provision, if we may believe Duris; Onesicritus tells us he was two hundred talents in debt. However narrow and disproportionable the beginnings of so vast an undertaking might seem to be, yet he would not embark his army until he had informed himself particularly what means his friends had to enable them to follow him, and supplied what they wanted, by giving good farms to some, a village to one, and the revenue of some hamlet or harbour-town to another. So that at last he had portioned out or engaged almost all the royal property; which giving Perdiccas an occasion to ask him what he would leave himself, he replied, his hopes. "Your soldiers," replied Perdiccas, "will be your partners in those," and refused to accept of the estate he had assigned him. Some others of his friends did the like, but to those who willingly received or desired assistance of him, he liberally granted it, as far as his patrimony in Macedonia would reach, the most part of which was spent in these donations. 

With such vigorous resolutions, and his mind thus disposed, he passed the Hellespont, and at Troy sacrificed to Minerva, and honoured the memory of the heroes who were buried there, with solemn libations; especially Achilles, whose gravestone he anointed, and with his friends, as the ancient custom is, ran naked about his sepulchre, and crowned it with garlands, declaring how happy he esteemed him, in having while he lived so faithful a friend, and when he was dead, so famous a poet to proclaim his actions. While he was viewing the rest of the antiquities and curiosities of the place, being told he might see Paris's harp, if he pleased, he said he thought it not worth looking on, but he should be glad to see that of Achilles, to which he used to sing the glories and great actions of brave men. 

In the meantime, Darius's captains, having collected large forces, were encamped on the further bank of the river Granicus, and it was necessary to fight, as it were, in the gate of Asia for an entrance into it. The depth of the river, with the unevenness and difficult ascent of the opposite bank, which was to be gained by main force, was apprehended by most, and some pronounced it an improper time to engage, because it was unusual for the kings of Macedonia to march with their forces in the month called Daesius. But Alexander broke through these scruples, telling them they should call it a second Artemisius. And when Parmenio advised him not to attempt anything that day, because it was late, he told him that he should disgrace the Hellespont should he fear the Granicus. And so, without more saying, he immediately took the river with thirteen troops of horse, and advanced against whole showers of darts thrown from the steep opposite side, which was covered with armed multitudes of the enemy's horse and foot, notwithstanding the disadvantage of the ground and the rapidity of the stream; so that the action seemed to have more frenzy and desperation in it, than of prudent conduct. However, he persisted obstinately to gain the passage, and at last with much ado making his way up the banks, which were extremely muddy and slippery, he had instantly to join in a mere confused hand-to-hand combat with the enemy, before he could draw up his men, who were still passing over, into any order. For the enemy pressed upon him with loud and warlike outcries; and charging horse against horse, with their lances, after they had broken and spent these, they fell to it with their swords. And Alexander, being easily known by his buckler, and a large plume of white feathers on each side of his helmet, was attacked on all sides, yet escaped wounding, though his cuirass was pierced by a javelin in one of the joinings. And Rhoesaces and Spithridates, two Persian commanders, falling upon him at once, he avoided one of them, and struck at Rhoesaces, who had a good cuirass on, with such force that, his spear breaking in his hand, he was glad to betake himself to his dagger. While they were thus engaged, Spithridates came up on one side of him, and raising himself upon his horse, gave him such a blow with his battle-axe on the helmet that he cut off the crest of it, with one of his plumes, and the helmet was only just so far strong enough to save him, that the edge of the weapon touched the hair of his head. But as he was about to repeat his stroke, Clitus, called the black Clitus, prevented him, by running him through the body with his spear. At the same time Alexander despatched Rhoesaces with his sword. While the horse were thus dangerously engaged, the Macedonian phalanx passed the river, and the foot on each side advanced to fight. But the enemy hardly sustaining the first onset soon gave ground and fled, all but the mercenary Greeks, who, making a stand upon a rising ground, desired quarter, which Alexander, guided rather by passion than judgment, refused to grant, and charging them himself first, had his horse (not Bucephalus, but another) killed under him. And this obstinacy of his to cut off these experienced desperate men cost him the lives of more of his own soldiers than all the battle before, besides those who were wounded. The Persians lost in this battle twenty thousand foot and two thousand five hundred horse. On Alexander's side, Aristobulus says there were not wanting above four-and-thirty, of whom nine were foot-soldiers; and in memory of them he caused so many statues of brass, of Lysippus's making, to be erected. And that the Grecians might participate in the honour of his victory he sent a portion of the spoils home to them particularly to the Athenians three hundred bucklers, and upon all the rest he ordered this inscription to be set: "Alexander the son of Philip, and the Grecians, except the Lacedaemonians, won these from the barbarians who inhabit Asia." All the plate and purple garments, and other things of the same kind that he took from the Persians, except a very small quantity which he reserved for himself, he sent as a present to his mother. 

This battle presently made a great change of affairs to Alexander's advantage. For Sardis itself, the chief seat of the barbarian's power in the maritime provinces, and many other considerable places, were surrendered to him; only Halicarnassus and Miletus stood out, which he took by force, together with the territory about them. After which he was a little unsettled in his opinion how to proceed. Sometimes he thought it best to find out Darius as soon as he could, and put all to the hazard of a battle; another while he looked upon it as a more prudent course to make an entire reduction of the sea-coast, and not to seek the enemy till he had first exercised his power here and made himself secure of the resources of these provinces. While he was thus deliberating what to do, it happened that a spring of water near the city of Xanthus in Lycia, of its own accord, swelled over its banks, and threw up a copper plate, upon the margin of which was engraven in ancient characters, that the time would come when the Persian empire should be destroyed by the Grecians. Encouraged by this accident, he proceeded to reduce the maritime parts of Cilicia and Phoenicia, and passed his army along the sea-coasts of Pamphylia with such expedition that many historians have described and extolled it with that height of admiration, as if it were no less than a miracle, and an extraordinary effect of divine favour, that the waves which usually come rolling in violently from the main, and hardly ever leave so much as a narrow beach under the steep, broken cliffs at any time uncovered, should on a sudden retire to afford him passage. Menander, in one of his comedies, alludes to this marvel when he says- 

"Was Alexander ever favoured more? 
Each man I wish for meets me at my door, 
And should I ask for passage through the sea, 
The sea I doubt not would retire for me." 

But Alexander himself in his epistles mentions nothing unusual in this at all, but says he went from Phaselis, and passed through what they call the Ladders. At Phaselis he stayed some time, and finding the statue of Theodectes, who was a native of this town and was now dead, erected in the market-place, after he had supped, having drunk pretty plentifully, he went and danced about it, and crowned it with garlands, honouring not ungracefully, in his sport, the memory of a philosopher whose conversation he had formerly enjoyed when he was Aristotle's scholar. 

Then he subdued the Pisidians who made head against him, and conquered the Phrygians, at whose chief city, Gordium, which is said to be the seat of the ancient Midas, he saw the famous chariot fastened with cords made of the rind of the cornel-tree, which whosoever should untie, the inhabitants had a tradition, that for him was reserved the empire of the world. Most authors tell the story that Alexander finding himself unable to untie the knot, the ends of which were secretly twisted round and folded up within it, cut it asunder with his sword. But Aristobulus tells us it was easy for him to undo it, by only pulling the pin out of the pole, to which the yoke was tied, and afterwards drawing off the yoke itself from below. From hence he advanced into Paphlagonia and Cappadocia, both which countries he soon reduced to obedience, and then hearing of the death of Memnon, the best commander Darius had upon the sea-coasts, who, if he had lived, might, it was supposed, have put many impediments and difficulties in the way of the progress of his arms, he was the rather encouraged to carry the war into the upper provinces of Asia. 

Darius was by this time upon his march from Susa, very confident, not only in the number of his men, which amounted to six hundred thousand, but likewise in a dream, which the Persian soothsayers interpreted rather in flattery to him than according to the natural probability. He dreamed that he saw the Macedonian phalanx all on fire, and Alexander waiting on him, clad in the same dress which he himself had been used to wear when he was courier to the late king; after which, going into the temple of Belus, he vanished out of his sight. The dream would appear to have supernaturally signified to him the illustrious actions the Macedonians were to perform, and that as he, from a courier's place, had risen to the throne, so Alexander should come to be master of Asia, and not long surviving his conquests, conclude his life with glory. Darius's confidence increased the more, because Alexander spent so much time in Cilicia, which he imputed to his cowardice. But it was sickness that detained him there, which some say he contracted from his fatigues, others from bathing in the river Cydnus, whose waters were exceedingly cold. However it happened, none of his physicians would venture to give him any remedies, they thought his case so desperate, and were so afraid of the suspicions and ill-will of the Macedonians if they should fail in the cure; till Philip, the Acarnanian, seeing how critical his case was, but relying on his own well-known friendship for him, resolved to try the last efforts of his art, and rather hazard his own credit and life than suffer him to perish for want of physic, which he confidently administered to him, encouraging him to take it boldly, if he desired a speedy recovery, in order to prosecute the war. At this very time, Parmenio wrote to Alexander from the camp, bidding him have a care of Philip, as one who was bribed by Darius to kill him, with great sums of money, and a promise of his daughter in marriage. When he had perused the letter, he put it under his pillow, without showing it so much as to any of his most intimate friends, and when Philip came in with the potion, he took it with great cheerfulness and assurance, giving him meantime the letter to read. This was a spectacle well worth being present at, to see Alexander take the draught and Philip read the letter at the same time, and then turn and look upon one another, but with different sentiments; for Alexander's looks were cheerful and open, to show his kindness to and confidence in his physician, while the other was full of surprise and alarm at the accusation, appealing to the gods to witness his innocence, sometimes lifting up his hands to heaven, and then throwing himself down by the bedside, and beseeching Alexander to lay aside all fear, and follow his directions without apprehension. For the medicine at first worked so strongly as to drive, so to say, the vital forces into the interior; he lost his speech, and falling into a swoon, had scarce any sense or pulse left. However in no long time, by Philip's means, his health and strength returned, and he showed himself in public to the Macedonians, who were in continual fear and dejection until they saw him abroad again. 

There was at this time in Darius's army a Macedonian refugee, named Amyntas, one who was pretty well acquainted with Alexander's character. This man, when he saw Darius intended to fall upon the enemy in the passes and defiles, advised him earnestly to keep where he was, in the open and extensive plains, it being the advantage of a numerous army to have field-room enough when it engaged with a lesser force. Darius, instead of taking his counsel, told him he was afraid the enemy would endeavour to run away, and so Alexander would escape out of his hands. "That fear," replied Amyntas, "is needless, for assure yourself that far from avoiding you, he will make all the speed he can to meet you, and is now most likely on his march toward you." But Amyntas's counsel was to no purpose, for Darius immediately decamping, marched into Cilicia at the same time that Alexander advanced into Syria to meet him; and missing one another in the night, they both turned back again. Alexander, greatly pleased with the event, made all the haste he could to fight in the defiles, and Darius to recover his former ground, and draw his army out of so disadvantageous a place. For now he began to perceive his error in engaging himself too far in a country in which the sea, the mountains, and the river Pinarus running through the midst of it, would necessitate him to divide his forces, render his horse almost unserviceable, and only cover and support the weakness of the enemy. Fortune was not kinder to Alexander in the choice of the ground, than he was careful to improve it to his advantage. For being much inferior in numbers, so far from allowing himself to be outflanked, he stretched his right wing much further out than the left wing of his enemies, and fighting there himself in the very foremost ranks, put the barbarians to flight. In this battle he was wounded in the thigh, Chares says, by Darius, with whom he fought hand-to-hand. But in the account which he gave Antipater of the battle, though indeed he owns he was wounded in the thigh with a sword, though not dangerously, yet he takes no notice who it was that wounded him. 

Nothing was wanting to complete this victory, in which he overthrew above an hundred and ten thousand of his enemies, but the taking the person of Darius, who escaped very narrowly by flight. However, having taken his chariot and his bow, he returned from pursuing him, and found his own men busy in pillaging the barbarians' camp, which (though to disburden themselves they had left most of their baggage at Damascus) was exceedingly rich. But Darius's tent, which was full of splendid furniture and quantities of gold and silver, they reserved for Alexander himself, who, after he had put off his arms, went to bathe himself saying, "Let us now cleanse ourselves from the toils of war in the bath of Darius." "Not so," replied one of his followers, "but in Alexander's rather; for the property of the conquered is and should be called the conqueror's." Here, when he beheld the bathing vessels, the water-pots, the pans, and the ointment boxes, all of gold curiously wrought, and smelt the fragrant odours with which the whole place was exquisitely perfumed, and from thence passed into a pavilion of great size and height, where the couches and tables and preparations for an entertainment were perfectly magnificent, he turned to those about him and said, "This, it seems, is royalty." 

But as he was going to supper, word was brought him that Darius's mother and wife and two unmarried daughters, being taken among the rest of the prisoners, upon the sight of his chariot and bow, were all in mourning and sorrow, imagining him to be dead. After a little pause, more lively affected with their affliction than with his own success, he sent Leonnatus to them, to let them know Darius was not dead, and that they need not fear any harm from Alexander, who made war upon him only for dominion; they should themselves be provided with everything they had been used to receive from Darius. This kind message could not but be very welcome to the captive ladies, especially being made good by actions no less humane and generous. For he gave them leave to bury whom they pleased of the Persians, and to make use for this purpose of what garments and furniture they thought fit out of the booty. He diminished nothing of their equipage, or of the attentions and respect formerly paid them, and allowed larger pensions for their maintenance than they had before. But the noblest and most royal part of their usage was, that he treated these illustrious prisoners according to their virtue and character, not suffering them to hear, or receive, or so much as to apprehend anything that was unbecoming. So that they seemed rather lodged in some temple, or some holy virgin chambers, where they enjoyed their privacy sacred and uninterrupted, than in the camp of an enemy. Nevertheless Darius's wife was accounted the most beautiful princess then living, as her husband the tallest and handsomest man of his time, and the daughters were not unworthy of their parents. But Alexander, esteeming it more kingly to govern himself than to conquer his enemies, sought no intimacy with any one of them, nor indeed with any other women before marriage, except Barsine, Memnon's widow, who was taken prisoner at Damascus. She had been instructed in the Grecian learning, was of a gentle temper, and by her father, Artabazus, royally descended, with good qualities, added to the solicitations and encouragement of Parmenio, as Aristobulus tells us, made him the more willing to attach himself to so agreeable and illustrious a woman. Of the rest of the female captives, though remarkably handsome and well proportioned, he took no further notice than to say jestingly that Persian women were terrible eyesores. And he himself, retaliating, as it were, by the display of the beauty of his own temperance and self-control, bade them be removed, as he would have done so many lifeless images. When Philoxenus, his lieutenant on the sea-coast, wrote to him to know if he would buy two young boys of great beauty, whom one Theodorus, a Tarentine, had to sell, he was so offended that he often expostulated with his friends what baseness Philoxenus had ever observed in him that he should presume to make him such a reproachful offer. And he immediately wrote him a very sharp letter, telling him Theodorus and his merchandise might go with his good-will to destruction. Nor was he less severe to Hagnon, who sent him word he would buy a Corinthian youth named Crobylus, as a present for him. And hearing that Damon and Timotheus, two of Parmenio's Macedonian soldiers, had abused the wives of some strangers who were in his pay, he wrote to Parmenio, charging him strictly, if he found them guilty, to put them to death, as wild beasts that were only made for the mischief of mankind. In the same letter he added, that he had not so much as seen or desired to see the wife of Darius, nor suffered anybody to speak of her beauty before him. He was wont to say that sleep and the act of generation chiefly made him sensible that he was mortal; as much as to say, that weariness and pleasure proceed both from the same frailty and imbecility of human nature. 

In his diet, also, he was most temperate, as appears, omitting many other circumstances, by what he said to Ada, whom he adopted, with the title of mother, and afterwards created Queen of Caria. For when she, out of kindness, sent him every day many curious dishes and sweetmeats, and would have furnished him with some cooks and pastry-men, who were thought to have great skill, he told her he wanted none of them, his preceptor, Leonidas, having already given him the best, which were a night march to prepare for breakfast, and a moderate breakfast to create an appetite for supper. Leonidas also, he added, used to open and search the furniture of his chamber and his wardrobe, to see if his mother had left him anything that was delicate or superfluous. He was much less addicted to wine than was generally believed; that which gave people occasion to think so of him was, that when he had nothing else to do, he loved to sit long and talk, rather than drink, and over every cup hold a long conversation. For when his affairs called upon him, he would not be detained, as other generals often were, either by wine, or sleep, nuptial solemnities, spectacles, or any other diversion whatsoever; a convincing argument of which is, that in the short time he lived, he accomplished so many and so great actions. When he was free from employment, after he was up, and had sacrificed to the gods he used to sit down to breakfast, and then spend the rest of the day in hunting, or writing memoirs, giving decisions on some military questions, or reading. In marches that required no great haste, he would practise shooting as he went along, or to mount a chariot and alight from it in full speed. Sometimes, for sport's sake, as his journals tell us, he would hunt foxes and go fowling. When he came in for the evening, after he had bathed and was anointed, he would call for his bakers and chief cooks, to know if they had his dinner ready. He never cared to dine till it was pretty late and beginning to be dark, and was wonderfully circumspect at meals that every one who sat with him should be served alike and with proper attention: and his love of talking, as was said before, made him delight to sit long at his wine. And then, though otherwise no prince's conversation was ever so agreeable, he would fall into a temper of ostentation and soldierly boasting, which gave his flatterers a great advantage to ride him, and made his better friends very uneasy. For though they thought it too base to strive who should flatter him most, yet they found it hazardous not to do it; so that between the shame and the danger, they were in a great strait how to behave themselves. After such an entertainment, he was wont to bathe, and then perhaps he would sleep till noon, and sometimes all day long. He was so very temperate in his eating, that when any rare fish or fruits were sent him, he would distribute them among his friends, and often reserve nothing for himself. His table, however, was always magnificent, the expense of it still increasing with his good fortune, till it amounted to ten thousand drachmas a day, to which sum he limited it, and beyond this he would suffer none to lay out in any entertainment where he himself was the guest. 

After the battle of Issus, he sent to Damascus to seize upon the money and baggage, the wives and children, of the Persians, of which spoil the Thessalian horsemen had the greatest share; for he had taken particular notice of their gallantry in the fight, and sent them thither on purpose to make their reward suitable to their courage. Not but that the rest of the army had so considerable a part of the booty as was sufficient to enrich them all. This first gave the Macedonians such a taste of the Persian wealth and women and barbaric splendour of living, that they were ready to pursue and follow upon it with all the eagerness of hounds upon a scent. But Alexander, before he proceeded any further, thought it necessary to assure himself of the sea-coast. Those who governed in Cyprus put that island into his possession, and Phoenicia, Tyre only excepted, was surrendered to him. During the siege of this city, which, with mounds of earth cast up, and battering engines, and two hundred galleys by sea, was carried on for seven months together, he dreamt that he saw Hercules upon the walls, reaching out his hands, and calling to him. And many of the Tyrians in their sleep fancied that Apollo told them he was displeased with their actions, and was about to leave them and go over to Alexander. Upon which, as if the god had been a deserting soldier, they seized him, so to say, in the act, tied down the statue with ropes, and nailed it to the pedestal, reproaching him that he was a favourer of Alexander. Another time Alexander dreamed he saw a satyr mocking him at a distance, and when he endeavoured to catch him, he still escaped from him, till at last with much perseverance, and running about after him, he got him into his power. The soothsayers, making two words of Satyrus, assured him that Tyre should be his own. The inhabitants at this time show a spring of water, near which they say Alexander slept when he fancied the satyr appeared to him. 

While the body of the army lay before Tyre, he made an excursion against the Arabians who inhabit the Mount Antilibanus, in which he hazarded his life extremely to bring off his master Lysimachus, who would needs go along with him, declaring he was neither older nor inferior in courage to Phoenix, Achilles's guardian. For when, quitting their horses, they began to march up the hills on foot, the rest of the soldiers outwent them a great deal, so that night drawing on, and the enemy near, Alexander was fain to stay behind so long, to encourage and help up the lagging and tired old man, that before he was aware he was left behind, a great way from his soldiers, with a slender attendance, and forced to pass an extremely cold night in the dark, and in a very inconvenient place; till seeing a great many scattered fires of the enemy at some distance, and trusting to his agility of body, and as he was always wont by undergoing toils and labours himself to cheer and support the Macedonians in any distress, he ran straight to one of the nearest fires, and with his dagger despatching two of the barbarians that sat by it, snatched up a lighted brand, and returned with it to his own men. They immediately made a great fire, which so alarmed the enemy that most of them fled, and those that assaulted them were soon routed and thus they rested securely the remainder of the night. Thus Chares writes. 

But to return to the siege, it had this issue. Alexander, that he might refresh his army, harassed with many former encounters, had led only a small party towards the walls, rather to keep the enemy busy than with any prospect of much advantage. It happened at this time that Aristander, the soothsayer, after he had sacrificed, upon view of the entrails, affirmed confidently to those who stood by that the city should be certainly taken that very month, upon which there was a laugh and some mockery among the soldiers, as this was the last day of it. The king, seeing him in perplexity, and always anxious to support the credit of the predictions, gave order that they should not count it as the thirtieth, but as the twenty-third of the month, and ordering the trumpets to sound, attacked the walls more seriously than he at first intended. The sharpness of the assault so inflamed the rest of his forces who were left in the camp, that they could not hold from advancing to second it, which they performed with so much vigour that the Tyrians retired, and the town was carried that very day. The next place he sat down before was Gaza, one of the largest cities of Syria, when this accident befell him. A large bird flying over him let a clod of earth fall upon his shoulder, and then settling upon one of the battering engines, was suddenly entangled and caught in the nets, composed of sinews, which protected the ropes with which the machine was managed. This fell out exactly according to Aristander's prediction, which was, that Alexander should be wounded and the city reduced. 

From hence he sent great part of the spoils to Olympias, Cleopatra, and the rest of his friends, not omitting his preceptor Leonidas, on whom he bestowed five hundred talents' weight of frankincense and an hundred of myrrh, in remembrance of the hopes he had once expressed of him when he was but a child. For Leonidas, it seems, standing by him one day while he was sacrificing, and seeing him take both his hands full of incense to throw into the fire, told him it became him to be more sparing in his offerings, and not to be so profuse till he was master of the countries which those sweet gums and saying, come from. So Alexander now wrote to him, saying, "We have sent you abundance of myrrh and frankincense, that for the future you may not be stingy to the gods." Among the treasures and other booty that was taken from Darius, there was a very precious casket, which being brought to Alexander for a great rarity, he asked those about him what they thought fittest to be laid up in it; and when they had delivered their various opinions, he told them he should keep Homer's Iliad in it. This is attested by many credible authors, and if what those of Alexandria tell us, relying upon the authority of Heraclides, be true, Homer was neither an idle nor an unprofitable companion to him in his expedition. For when he was master of Egypt, designing to settle a colony of Grecians there, he resolved to build a large and populous city, and give it his own name. In order to which, after he had measured and staked out the ground with the advice of the best architects, he chanced one night in his sleep to see a wonderful vision; a grey-headed old man, of a venerable aspect, appeared to stand by him, and pronounce these verses:- 

"An island lies, where loud the billows roar, 
Pharos they call it, on the Egyptian shore." 

Alexander upon this immediately rose up and went to Pharos, which, at that time, was an island lying a little above the Canobic mouth of the river Nile, though it has now been joined to the mainland by a mole. As soon as he saw the commodious situation of the place, it being a long neck of land, stretching like an isthmus between large lagoons and shallow waters on one side and the sea on the other, the latter at the end of it making a spacious harbour, he said, Homer, besides his other excellences, was a very good architect, and ordered the plan of a city to be drawn out answerable to the place. To do which, for want of chalk, the soil being black, they laid out their lines with flour, taking in a pretty large compass of ground in a semi-circular figure, and drawing into the inside of the circumference equal straight lines from each end, thus giving it something of the form of a cloak or cape; while he was pleasing himself with his design, on a sudden an infinite number of great birds of several kinds, rising like a black cloud out of the river and the lake, devoured every morsel of the flour that had been used in setting out the lines; at which omen even Alexander himself was troubled, till the augurs restored his confidence again by telling him it was a sign the city he was about to build would not only abound in all things within itself, but also be the nurse and feeder of many nations. He commanded the workmen to proceed, while he went to visit the temple of Ammon. 

This was a long and painful, and, in two respects, a dangerous journey; first, if they should lose their provision of water, as for several days none could be obtained; and, secondly, if a violent south wind should rise upon them, while they were travelling through the wide extent of deep sands, as it is said to have done when Cambyses led his army that way, blowing the sand together in heaps, and raising, as it were, the whole desert like a sea upon them, till fifty thousand were swallowed up and destroyed by it. All these difficulties were weighed and represented to him; but Alexander was not easily to be diverted from anything he was bent upon. For fortune having hitherto seconded him in his designs, made him resolute and firm in his opinions, and the boldness of his temper raised a sort of passion in him for surmounting difficulties; as if it were not enough to be always victorious in the field, unless places and seasons and nature herself submitted to him. In this journey, the relief and assistance the gods afforded him in his distresses were more remarkable, and obtained greater belief than the oracles he received afterwards, which, however, were valued and credited the more on account of those occurrences. For first, plentiful rains that fell preserved them from any fear of perishing by drought, and, allaying the extreme dryness of the sand, which now became moist and firm to travel on, cleared and purified the air. Besides this, when they were out of their way, and were wandering up and down, because the marks which were wont to direct the guides were disordered and lost, they were set right again by some ravens, which flew before them when on their march, and waited for them when they lingered and fell behind; and the greatest miracle, as Callisthenes tells us, was that if any of the company went astray in the night, they never ceased croaking and making a noise till by that means they had brought them into the right way again. Having passed through the wilderness, they came to the place where the high priest, at the first salutation, bade Alexander welcome from his father Ammon. And being asked by him whether any of his father's murderers had escaped punishment, he charged him to speak with more respect, since his was not a mortal father. Then Alexander, changing his expression, desired to know of him if any of those who murdered Philip were yet unpunished, and further concerning dominion, whether the empire of the world was reserved for him? This, the god answered, he should obtain, and that Philip's death was fully revenged, which gave him so much satisfaction that he made splendid offerings to Jupiter, and gave the priests very rich presents. This is what most authors write concerning the oracles. But Alexander, in a letter to his mother, tells her there were some secret answers, which at his return he would communicate to her only. Others say that the priest, desirous as a piece of courtesy to address him in Greek, "O Paidion," by a slip in pronunciation ended with the s instead of the n, and said "O Paidios," which mistake Alexander was well enough pleased with, and it went for current that the oracle had called him so. 

Among the sayings of one Psammon, a philosopher, whom he heard in Egypt, he most approved of this, that all men are governed by God, because in everything, that which is chief and commands is divine. But what he pronounced himself upon this subject was even more like a philosopher, for he said God was the common father of us all, but more particularly of the best of us. To the barbarians he carried himself very haughtily, as if he were fully persuaded of his divine birth and parentage; but to the Grecians more moderately, and with less affectation of divinity, except it were once in writing to the Athenians about Samos, when he tells them that he should not himself have bestowed upon them that free and glorious city; "You received it," he says, "from the bounty of him who at that time was called my lord and father," meaning Philip. However, afterwards being wounded with an arrow, and feeling much pain, he turned to those about him, and told them, "This, my friends, is real flowing blood, not Ichor- 

"Such as immortal gods are wont to shed." And another time, when it thundered so much that everybody was afraid, and Anaxarchus, the sophist, asked him if he who was Jupiter's son could do anything like this, "Nay," said Alexander, laughing, "I have no desire to be formidable to my friends, as you would have me, who despised my table for being furnished with fish, and not with the heads of governors of provinces." For in fact it is related as true, that Anaxarchus, seeing a present of small fishes, which the king sent to Hephaestion, had used this expression, in a sort of irony, and disparagement of those who undergo vast labours and encounter great hazards in pursuit of magnificent objects which after all bring them little more pleasure or enjoyment than what others have. From what I have said upon this subject, it is apparent that Alexander in himself was not foolishly affected, or had the vanity to think himself really a god, but merely used his claims to divinity as a means of maintaining among other people the sense of his superiority. 

At his return out of Egypt into Phoenicia, he sacrificed and made solemn processions, to which were added shows of lyric dances and tragedies, remarkable not merely for the splendour of the equipage and decorations, but for the competition among those who exhibited them. For the kings of Cyprus were here the exhibitors, just in the same manner as at Athens those who are chosen by lot out of the tribes. And, indeed, they showed the greatest emulation to outvie each other; especially Nicocreon, King of Salamis, and Pasicrates of Soli, who furnished the chorus, and defrayed the expenses of the two most celebrated actors, Athenodorus and Thessalus, the former performing for Pasicrates, and the latter for Nicocrean. Thessalus was most favoured by Alexander, though it did not appear till Athenodorus was declared victor by the plurality of votes. For then at his going away, he said the judges deserved to be commended for what they had done, but that he would willingly have lost part of his kingdom rather than to have seen Thessalus overcome. However, when he understood Athenodorus was fined by the Athenians for being absent at the festivals of Bacchus, though he refused his request that he would write a letter in his behalf, he gave him a sufficient sum to satisfy the penalty. Another time, when Lycon of Scarphia happened to act with great applause in the theatre, and in a verse which he introduced into the comic part which he was acting, begged for a present of ten talents, he laughed and gave him the money. 

Darius wrote him a letter, and sent friends to intercede with him, requesting him to accept as a ransom of his captives the sum of a thousand talents, and offering him in exchange for his amity and alliance all the countries on this side the river Euphrates, together with one of his daughters in marriage. These propositions he communicated to his friends, and when Parmenio told him that, for his part, if he were Alexander, he should readily embrace them, "So would I," said Alexander, "if I were Parmenio." Accordingly, his answer to Darius was, that if he would come and yield himself up into his power he would treat him with all possible kindness; if not, he was resolved immediately to go himself and seek him. But the death of Darius's wife in childbirth made him soon after regret one part of this answer, and he showed evident marks of grief at thus deprived of a further opportunity of exercising his clemency and good nature, which he manifested, however, as far as he could, by giving her a most sumptuous funeral. 

Among the eunuchs who waited in the queen's chamber, and were taken prisoners with the women, there was one Tireus, who, getting out of the camp, fled away on horseback to Darius, to inform him of his wife's death. He, when he heard it, beating his head, and bursting into tears and lamentations, said, "Alas! how great is the calamity of the Persians! Was it not enough that their king's consort and sister was a prisoner in her lifetime, but she must, now she is dead, also be but meanly and obscurely buried?" "O king," replied the eunuch, "as to her funeral rites, or any respect or honour that should have been shown in them, you have not the least reason to accuse the ill fortune of your country; for to my knowledge neither your queen Statira when alive, nor your mother, nor children, wanted anything of their former happy condition, unless it were the light of your countenance, which I doubt not but the lord Oromasdes will yet restore to its former glory. And after her decease, I assure you, she had not only all due funeral ornaments, but was honoured also with the tears of your very enemies; for Alexander is as gentle after victory as he is terrible in the field." At the bearing of these words, such was the grief and emotion of Darius's mind, that they carried him into extravagant suspicions; and taking Tireus aside into a more private part of his tent, "Unless thou likewise," said he to him, "hast deserted me, together with the good fortune of Persia, and art become a Macedonian in thy heart; if thou yet ownest me for thy master Darius, tell me, I charge thee, by the veneration thou payest the light of Mithras, and this right hand of thy king, do I not lament the least of Statira's misfortunes in her captivity and death? Have I not suffered something more injurious and deplorable in her lifetime? And had I not been miserable with less dishonour if I had met with a more severe and inhuman enemy? For how is it possible a young man as he is should treat the wife of his opponent with so much distinction, were it not from some motive that does me disgrace?" Whilst he was yet speaking, Tireus threw himself at his feet, and besought him neither to wrong Alexander so much, nor his dead wife and sister, as to give utterance to any such thoughts, which deprived him of the greatest consolation left him in his adversity, the belief that he was overcome by a man whose virtues raised him above human nature; that he ought to look upon Alexander with love and admiration, who had given no less proofs of his continence towards the Persian women, than of his valour among the men. The eunuch confirmed all he said with solemn and dreadful oaths, and was further enlarging upon Alexander's moderation and magnanimity on other occasions, when Darius, breaking away from him into the other division of the tent, where his friends and courtiers were, lifted up his hands to heaven and uttered this prayer, "Ye gods," said he, "of my family, and of my kingdom, if it be possible, I beseech you to restore the declining affairs of Persia, that I may leave them in as flourishing a condition as I found them, and have it in my power to make a grateful return to Alexander for the kindness which in my adversity he has shown to those who are dearest to me. But if, indeed, the fatal time be come, which is to give a period to the Persian monarchy, if our ruin be a debt that must be paid to the divine jealousy and the vicissitude of things, then I beseech you grant that no other man but Alexander may sit upon the throne of Cyrus." Such is the narrative given by the greater number of the historians. 

But to return to Alexander. After he had reduced all Asia on this side the Euphrates, he advanced towards Darius, who was coming down against him with a million of men. In his march a very ridiculous passage happened. The servants who followed the camp for sport's sake divided themselves into two parties, and named the commander of one of them Alexander, and the other Darius. At first they only pelted one another with clods of earth, but presently took to their fists, and at last, heated with contention, they fought in good earnest with stones and clubs, so that they had much ado to part them; till Alexander, upon hearing of it, ordered the two captains to decide the quarrel by single combat, and armed him who bore his name himself, while Philotas did the same to him who represented Darius. The whole army were spectators of this encounter, willing from the event of it to derive an omen of their own future success. After they had fought stoutly a pretty long while, at last he who was called Alexander had the better, and for a reward of his prowess had twelve villages given him, with leave to wear the Persian dress. So we are told by Eratosthenes. 

But the great battle of all that was fought with Darius was not, as most writers tell us, at Arbela, but at Gaugamela, which, in their language, signifies the camel's house, forasmuch as one of their ancient kings having escaped the pursuit of his enemies on a swift camel, in gratitude to his beast, settled him at this place, with an allowance of certain villages and rents for his maintenance. It came to pass that in the month Boedromion, about the beginning of the feast of Mysteries at Athens, there was an eclipse of the moon, the eleventh night after which, the two armies being now in view of one another, Darius kept his men in arms, and by torchlight took a general review of them. But Alexander, while his soldiers slept, spent the night before his tent with his diviner, Aristander, performing certain mysterious ceremonies, and sacrificing to the god Fear. In the meanwhile the oldest of his commanders, and chiefly Parmenio, when they beheld all the plain between Niphates and the Gordyaean mountains shining with the lights and fires which were made by the barbarians, and heard the uncertain and confused sounds of voices out of their camp, like the distant roaring of a vast ocean, were so amazed at the thoughts of such a multitude, that after some conference among themselves, they concluded it an enterprise too difficult and hazardous for them to engage so numerous an enemy in the day, and therefore meeting the king as he came from sacrificing, besought him to attack Darius by night, that the darkness might conceal the danger of the ensuing battle. To this he gave them the celebrated answer, "I will not steal a victory," which though some at the time thought a boyish and inconsiderate speech, as if he played with danger, others, however, regarded as an evidence that he confided in his present condition, and acted on a true judgment of the future, not wishing to leave Darius, in case he were worsted, the pretext of trying his fortune again, which he might suppose himself to have, if he could im