Showing posts with label Germany. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Germany. Show all posts

Wednesday, 25 March 2015

NATO Fighters Down German Passenger Plane


"The autopilot on the doomed Germanwings plane that crashed into the Alps was abruptly switched to descend to 100 feet, according to a new report Thursday.
FlightRadar24, an online tracking service that uses satellite data, found evidence the autopilot was adjusted to its lowest setting before the plane started its steady fall from the sky, Reuters reported.
FlightRadar said its review of data showed the autopilot was manually changed from 38,000 feet to 100 feet and 9 seconds later the aircraft started to descend, probably with the “open descent” autopilot setting, the firm’s CEO Fredrik Lindahl said. The plane slammed into a mountain at 6,000 feet, killing 150 people."
schizophrenia
ˌskɪtsə(ʊ)ˈfriːnɪə/
noun
  1. a long-term mental disorder of a type involving a breakdown in the relation between thought, emotion, and behaviour, leading to faulty perception, inappropriate actions and feelings, withdrawal from reality and personal relationships into fantasy and delusion, and a sense of mental fragmentation.
    • (in general use) a mentality or approach characterized by inconsistent or contradictory elements.
      "Gibraltar's schizophrenia continues to be fed by colonial pride"

      Webster Tarpley on the Charlie Hebdo Killings in their Geopolitical Context from Spike EP on Vimeo.

      "There were, what? Thirty-five attempts on the life of General DeGaulle...? Standing up for the dignity of France, and standing in defiance of being the battlefield for a Limited Nuclear War... He was therefore targetted by, in effect, the NATO Establishment, and the same can be said of the Aldo Moro case in Italy...." - Tarpley



http://www.jimstone.is/a320crash.html


HERE WE HAVE THE EDITED REPORT, WITH THE FIGHTER JETS REMOVED. If they get put back into the story and lies are hatched for damage control it is TOO LATE, the fact they chose to expunge this information irrevocably proves they never wanted these fighter jets to be mentioned, and THAT SAYS IT ALL. TOO LATE, BUSTED:

So now we have:

1. Plane took forever to crash and pilots never contacted the tower. That is a huge mystery, even according to the tower. 
2. An Airbus with a remote control option.
3. Fighter jet escorts, along with a very good description about how they appeared (they were not UFO's)
4. A redaction of the fighter jet escorts.
LOGICAL OUTPUT: 
1. The pilots never contacted the tower because 
2. The fighter jets prevented it by either jamming communications off or 
3. turning them off via remote control, and then crashing the jet via remote. 
4. Expungement of the fighter jets from the news reports NAILS IT ALL, THIS ONE IS SHOT DEAD AND SERVED COLD.
5. REMOTE CONTROL WAS USED TO ELIMINATE A SEPARATE DEBRIS FIELD WHICH WOULD HAVE BEEN CAUSED BY A SHOOT DOWN AND RAISED QUESTIONS.

AND NOW THE BIG QUESTION IS: WHO WAS ON THAT PLANE?



GERMAN AIRBUS CRASH IN FRANCE - Last Message of "EMERGENCY, EMERGENCY" from Spike EP on Vimeo.

  • WHITE HOUSE: NO INDICATION OF TERRORISM IN AIRPLANE CRASH




" The A320 that crashed on Tuesday was operated by Germanwings, a low-cost carrier operated by Lufthansa, and had 150 people on board. The French president said there were probably no survivors.
The aircraft had been in service for 24 years. Airbus said that it had accumulated more than 58,000 flight hours over more than 46,000 flights. A Germanwings official told reporters that the last routine maintenance check was performed on Monday.
The A320 is sophisticated, one of the first highly computerized, or fly-by-wire, planes in service. Because the crash did not happen on takeoff or landing, whatever happened was probably sudden and catastrophic, air safety experts said. "
NBC



The Airbus A320 is now equipped with a full Autoland system as standard.


I quote an airline pilot :

Autoland is a function that uses the whole autoflight system to automatically land the aircraft. Rollout is a ground directional control mode that lives within the autoflight system. There are autoland systems that disconnect at touchdown and don’t have a rollout mode, so they don’t have to go together.
Autoland is the whole function…it’s going to include ILS tracking during the approach (lateral-directional and pitch control), x-wind compensation and flare on final, potentially rollout after touchdown, and maybe assorted automatic stopping function (autospoilers, autobrakes, brake-to-vacate, etc.) depending on the aircraft. Rollout is the specific control mode that’s used to control direction (centerline) after touchdown.

To summarize: you can have autoland with no rollout capability, but you can’t have rollout without an autoland. Rollout, therefore, is a control mode of the autoland system, which is a function of the autoflight system.The idea is to continue keeping the Aircraft aligned to the runway after touchdown. "


Autopilot on doomed German plane reportedly set to crash

New details on co-pilot accused of crashing Germanwings jet
The autopilot on the doomed Germanwings plane that crashed into the Alps was abruptly switched to descend to 100 feet, according to a new report Thursday.
FlightRadar24, an online tracking service that uses satellite data, found evidence the autopilot was adjusted to its lowest setting before the plane started its steady fall from the sky, Reuters reported.
French prosecutors said Andreas Lubitz, the 28-year-old who officials locked the pilot out of the Germanwings cockpit and then calmly slammed the plane into a mountainside at 430 miles per hour. He reportedly battled burnout and depression in 2009, while training to realize his dream of flying.
FlightRadar said its review of data showed the autopilot was manually changed from 38,000 feet to 100 feet and 9 seconds later the aircraft started to descend, probably with the “open descent” autopilot setting, the firm’s CEO Fredrik Lindahl said. The plane slammed into a mountain at 6,000 feet, killing 150 people.
Lindahl said FlightRadar24 shared its findings with French crash investigators.
With no apparent ties to terrorism, authorities were focusing Thursday on the mental state of the German co-pilot believed to have intentionally crashed a plane into the French Alps Tuesday, killing all 150 aboard.
It was not known if Lubitz' mental issues continued to plague him years later, but new clues could emerge from searches that took place Thursday at a Dusseldorf apartment Libitz maintained as well as at his parents' home in Montabaur, a small town in western Germany.
French prosecutor Robin Brice insisted Thursday that Lubitz had no known ties to terrorism that could explain the act.
"A terrorist?" he said in response to a question. "Absolutely not."
Three Americans were among those killed, including Yvonne and Emily Selke, a mother and daughter from Virginia, and Robert Oliver, whose name, but no further details, was released Thursday by the State Department.
Clues from the Airbus 320's cockpit voice recorder painted a partial picture of a calm and calculated effort by Lubitz. As the plane left Barcelona, Lubitz and Capt. Patrick Sonderheimer chatted amiably. But as the plane neared cruising altitude of 38,000 feet, Lubitz's replies became more clipped. And when Sonderheimer rose to leave the cockpit, likely to use the restroom, Lubitz appeared to put his deadly plan into action.
"I'm leaving you in charge," Sonderheimer said.
Robin said in a Paris that the evidence from the cockpit voice recorder, one of two "black boxes" and the only one recovered so far, indicates Lubitz refused to open the cabin door when Sonderheimer returned, beginning the 8-minute descent "manually and intentionally."
Robin said the commander of the plane knocked several times "without response." He said the door could only be blocked manually.
The information was pulled from the black box cockpit voice recorder, but Robin said the co-pilot did not say a word after the commanding pilot left the cockpit.
"It was absolute silence in the cockpit," he said.
Screams can be heard from passengers in the final seconds of their lives, officials said. 
It was the co-pilot's "intention to destroy this plane," Robin said. The recorder captured his normal breathing patterns, suggesting Lubitz was not incapacitated.
"It wasn't the breath of somebody who was struggling,” the prosecutor said. “He didn't say a single word. Total silence."
Asked when passengers realized their fate, Robin said, "We only hear screams at the very end. Death was instant.”
During the final minutes of the flight's descent, pounding could be heard on the cockpit door as plane alarms sounded, but the co-pilot's breathing was normal throughout the whole time, Robin said.
"It's obvious this co-pilot took advantage of the commander's absence. Could he have known he would leave? It is too early to say," he said.
Lufthansa CEO Carsten Spohr said the airline was already "appalled" by what happened in its low-cost subsidiary.
"I could not have imagined that becoming even worse," Spohr said in Cologne. "We choose our cockpit staff very, very carefully."
In the German town of Montabaur, acquaintances told The Associated Press that Lubitz showed no signs of depression when they saw him last fall as he renewed his glider pilot's license.
"He was happy he had the job with Germanwings and he was doing well," said a member of the glider club, Peter Ruecker, who watched Lubitz learn to fly. "He gave off a good feeling."
Lubitz, 28, joined Germanwings in September 2013, directly after training which included a stint at a facility near Phoenix, Aiz., and had flown 630 hours. Lufthansa chief executive Carsten Spohr described both pilots as "experienced and trained."
Robin said the Germanwings plane's second black box still had not been found but remains of the victims were being collected and DNA identification had begun.
The plane was about halfway through its flight when it descended from a cruising altitude of 38,000 feet to around 6,000 feet in approximately eight minutes. During that time, the co-pilot did not respond to radio calls from French air traffic controllers, who alerted authorities when the plane disappeared from their radar screens.
The Wall Street Journal, citing Airbus training materials, reported that many Airbus jets are fitted with crew-controlled locks designed to prevent unauthorized access to the flight deck. In some planes, the cockpit can be accessed through a keypad code, but pilots can also lock out external access for five minutes or longer by flipping a certain switch in the cockpit.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.

Lufthansa Airbus crash in the Alps. Same pattern as the others.

_81864644_026462963
It seems a switch can be flipped, power to the aircraft gets cut off, and without power, the plane inevitably crashes.  Is this the standard method of country control now?  Aircraft all have a kill switch, operable by the CIA/Mossad.  It gets used as  a way to pressure the nations into line.  I feel for the families who lost so many children today.
While the White House, seemingly an expert in determining airplane crashes causes within hours if not minutes of the accident (see flight MH-17)  has already opined on the tragic crash of the Lufthansa Germanwings airplane:
  • WHITE HOUSE: NO INDICATION OF TERRORISM IN AIRPLANE CRASH
This will hardly be comfort to the families of the 148 people who lost their lives the crash which took place in the south Franch alps, and where the first images of the debris have just been released, via Airlive.net
Further evidence that the airplane crash was not a midair disintegration is that while the vertical airspeed was susbtantial, it wasn’t freefall, and it took the airplane about 10 minutes to drop from a height of 11.5 to its final resting place some 2 kilometers high in the alps (via Zeit).
And here are all the latest crash developments from AP:
A local lawmaker says the debris from the plane crash in the French Alps that killed all 150 people on board is spread over 100-200 meters (110-220 yards).
Gilbert Sauvan, president of the general council of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, told the AP that “everything is pulverized.”
He said the largest pieces of debris are the size of a small car.
Sauvan said no one can access the site from the ground, but that helicopters are circling the area to get information and 500 firefighters and gendarmes are in the area.
The boss of airline Germanwings says the plane went into a long descent before it crashed into the French Alps, likely killing all 150 people on board.
Germanwings CEO Thomas Winkelmann said the plane began descending again shortly after it reached its cruising height following takeoff from Barcelona Airport. The descent lasted eight minutes, he told reporters in Cologne. Radar and air traffic control contact broke off at 10:53 a.m.
He said the pilot had more than 10 years’ experience working for Germanwings and its parent airline Lufthansa. Airbus said the A320 was delivered to Lufthansa in 1991.
Germanwings said the passenger manifest included two babies. Officials believe there were 67 German nationals on board.
JIM STONE EXTRACT –

To the idiots out there who might say “Oh, the conspiracy crowd solved this before a single investigator arrived at the crash scene:” There are only a few things you need to know to solve this one, the rest is just scammery:

1. The plane descended for 10 minutes, and NO WORD FROM THE PILOTS. How can that happen? Jamming of communications. Who could have jammed communications?
2. The fighter jets, which were following this Airbus. THEY could have jammed the communications with ease, AND shot it down. They probably did not shoot it down OR EVEN NEED TO JAM COMMUNICATIONS because:
3. The plane was equipped with remote control (for “hijack recovery”) AS A STANDARD FEATURE. That level of external control would make switching off communications via remote control a NO BRAINER.
NO CONTACT WITH THE TOWER SAYS IT ALL, A REMOTE CONTROLLED CRASH REALLY IS THE OVERWHELMING ANSWER.

Why would fighter jets be following at just the right time anyway? That alone CINCHES IT. We really do need to figure out who was on that plane.

BUSTED: CENSORSHIP OF NEWS PROVES THE FIGHTER JETS DID INDEED DOWN THIS GERMAN AIRCRAFT, IF THEY DID NOT, WHY EXPUNGE THE NEWS OF THEIR PRESENCE?

TAP – Jim explains the plane crashed at full throttle doing 600 mph, which suggests control of the aircraft from outside the plane.

Also There Was A US Spook On Board 
The mother, Yvonne Selke of Nokesville, Virginia, had worked for Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. in Washington for 23 years, and her daughter Emily Selke was a 2013 graduate of Drexel University in Philadelphia. According to the AP, Yvonne Selke worked under contract with the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the satellite mapping office for the Department of Defense.
“Yvonne was a wonderful co-worker and a dedicated employee who spent her career with the firm,” Booz Allen’s chief personnel officer, Betty Thompson, told the AP.

The Murdoch NYT reports – PARIS — As officials struggled Wednesday to explain why a jet with 150 people on board crashed amid a relatively clear sky, an investigator said evidence from a cockpit voice recorder indicated one pilot left the cockpit before the plane’s descent and was unable to get back in.
A senior military official involved in the investigation described “very smooth, very cool” conversation between the pilots during the early part of the flight from Barcelona, Spain, to Düsseldorf, Germany. Then the audio indicated that one of the pilots left the cockpit and could not re-enter.
“The guy outside is knocking lightly on the door, and there is no answer,” the investigator said. “And then he hits the door stronger, and no answer. There is never an answer.”
He said, “You can hear he is trying to smash the door down.”
While the audio seemed to give some insight into the circumstances leading to the Germanwings crash on Tuesday morning, it also left many questions unanswered.



Monday, 26 January 2015

SYRIZA


If you owe the bank £1000, they own your ass.

If you owe the bank £500 Billion - their ass is yours...

And "SYRIZA" is Greek for "E.U. Reap What You Sow"

ORGANISE - You are called-upon to aspire and work towards The Good...

"...if Greece falls and is removed from the eurozone - the eurozone will collapse. We said from the beginning the eurozone is in danger, the euro is in danger, but it isn't in danger from Syriza... it is in danger from the very policies of austerity"

- Euclid Tsakalotos, SYRIZA


"Greece must have assistance if it is to become a self-supporting and self-respecting democracy. "
- President Harry S.Truman,
1947

European Commission head Jean-Claude Juncker has reminded him of the need to "ensure fiscal responsibility".
Congratulating Mr Tsipras on his election win, Mr Juncker said in a tweet: "The European Commission stands ready to continue assisting Greece in achieving these goals." He also referred to "promoting sustainable jobs and growth".


However Jeroen Dijsselbloem, president of the Eurogroup, said on Monday: "There is very little support for a write-off in Europe."
Speaking after a meeting of eurozone finance ministers in Brussels, he said members should "abide by the rules and commitments".
Meanwhile the German government said that Greece's new leadership should take measures to ensure the economic recovery continues.
"A part of that is Greece holding to its prior commitments and that the new government be tied in to the reform's achievements," government spokesman Steffan Seibert said.
A List of Demands :

1. Audit of the public debt and renegotiation of interest due and suspension of payments until the economy has revived and growth and employment return.
2. Demand the European Union to change the role of the European Central Bank so that it finances states and programs of public investment.
3. Raise income tax to 75% for all incomes over 500,000 euros.
4. Change the election laws to a proportional system.
5. Increase taxes on big companies to that of the European average.
6. Adoption of a tax on financial transactions and a special tax on luxury goods.
7. Prohibition of speculative financial derivatives.
8. Abolition of financial privileges for the Church and shipbuilding industry.
9. Combat the banks' secret [measures] and the flight of capital abroad.
10. Cut drastically military expenditures.
11. Raise minimum salary to the pre-cut level, 750 euros per month.
12. Use buildings of the government, banks and the Church for the homeless.
13. Open dining rooms in public schools to offer free breakfast and lunch to children.
14. Free health benefits to the unemployed, homeless and those with low salaries.
15. Subvention up to 30% of mortgage payments for poor families who cannot meet payments.
16. Increase of subsidies for the unemployed. Increase social protection for one-parent families, the aged, disabled, and families with no income.
17. Fiscal reductions for goods of primary necessity.
18. Nationalisation of banks.
19. Nationalisation of ex-public (service & utilities) companies in strategic sectors for the growth of the country (railroads, airports, mail, water).
20. Preference for renewable energy and defence of the environment.
21. Equal salaries for men and women.
22. Limitation of precarious hiring and support for contracts for indeterminate time.
23. Extension of the protection of labour and salaries of part-time workers.
24. Recovery of collective (labour) contracts.
25. Increase inspections of labour and requirements for companies making bids for public contracts.
26. Constitutional reforms to guarantee separation of church and state and protection of the right to education, health care and the environment.
27. Referendums on treaties and other accords with Europe.
28. Abolition of privileges for parliamentary deputies. Removal of special juridical protection for ministers and permission for the courts to proceed against members of the government.
29. Demilitarisation of the Coast Guard and anti-insurrectional special troops. Prohibition for police to wear masks or use fire arms during demonstrations. Change training courses for police so as to underline social themes such as immigration, drugs and social factors.
30. Guarantee human rights in immigrant detention centres.
31. Facilitate the reunion of immigrant families.
32. Depenalisation of consumption of drugs in favor of battle against drug traffic. Increase funding for drug rehab centres.
33. Regulate the right of conscientious objection in draft laws.
34. Increase funding for public health up to the average European level.(The European average is 6% of GDP; in Greece 3%.)
35. Elimination of payments by citizens for national health services.
36. Nationalisation of private hospitals. Elimination of private participation in the national health system.
37. Withdrawal of Greek troops from Afghanistan and the Balkans. No Greek soldiers beyond our own borders.
38. Abolition of military cooperation with Israel. Support for creation of a Palestinian state within the 1967 borders.
39. Negotiation of a stable accord with Turkey.
40. Closure of all foreign bases in Greece and withdrawal from NATO.


The Truman Doctrine
PRESIDENT HARRY S. TRUMAN'S ADDRESS BEFORE A JOINT SESSION OF CONGRESS, 
MARCH 12, 1947

"Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, Members of the Congress of the United States:

The gravity of the situation which confronts the world today necessitates my appearance before a joint session of the Congress. The foreign policy and the national security of this country are involved.

One aspect of the present situation, which I wish to present to you at this time for your consideration and decision, concerns Greece and Turkey.

The United States has received from the Greek Government an urgent appeal for financial and economic assistance. Preliminary reports from the American Economic Mission now in Greece and reports from the American Ambassador in Greece corroborate the statement of the Greek Government that assistance is imperative if Greece is to survive as a free nation.

I do not believe that the American people and the Congress wish to turn a deaf ear to the appeal of the Greek Government.

Greece is not a rich country. Lack of sufficient natural resources has always forced the Greek people to work hard to make both ends meet. Since 1940, this industrious and peace loving country has suffered invasion, four years of cruel enemy occupation, and bitter internal strife.

When forces of liberation entered Greece they found that the retreating Germans had destroyed virtually all the railways, roads, port facilities, communications, and merchant marine. More than a thousand villages had been burned. Eighty-five per cent of the children were tubercular. Livestock, poultry, and draft animals had almost disappeared. Inflation had wiped out practically all savings.

As a result of these tragic conditions, a militant minority, exploiting human want and misery, was able to create political chaos which, until now, has made economic recovery impossible.

Greece is today without funds to finance the importation of those goods which are essential to bare subsistence. Under these circumstances the people of Greece cannot make progress in solving their problems of reconstruction. Greece is in desperate need of financial and economic assistance to enable it to resume purchases of food, clothing, fuel and seeds. These are indispensable for the subsistence of its people and are obtainable only from abroad. Greece must have help to import the goods necessary to restore internal order and security, so essential for economic and political recovery.

The Greek Government has also asked for the assistance of experienced American administrators, economists and technicians to insure that the financial and other aid given to Greece shall be used effectively in creating a stable and self-sustaining economy and in improving its public administration.

The very existence of the Greek state is today threatened by the terrorist activities of several thousand armed men, led by Communists, who defy the government's authority at a number of points, particularly along the northern boundaries. A Commission appointed by the United Nations security Council is at present investigating disturbed conditions in northern Greece and alleged border violations along the frontier between Greece on the one hand and Albania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia on the other.

Meanwhile, the Greek Government is unable to cope with the situation. The Greek army is small and poorly equipped. It needs supplies and equipment if it is to restore the authority of the government throughout Greek territory. Greece must have assistance, if it is to become a self-supporting and self-respecting democracy.

The United States must supply that assistance. We have already extended to Greece certain types of relief and economic aid but these are inadequate.

There is no other country to which democratic Greece can turn.

No other nation is willing and able to provide the necessary support for a democratic Greek government.

The British Government, which has been helping Greece, can give no further financial or economic aid after March 31. Great Britain finds itself under the necessity of reducing or liquidating its commitments in several parts of the world, including Greece.

We have considered how the United Nations might assist in this crisis. But the situation is an urgent one requiring immediate action and the United Nations and its related organizations are not in a position to extend help of the kind that is required.

It is important to note that the Greek Government has asked for our aid in utilizing effectively the financial and other assistance we may give to Greece, and in improving its public administration. It is of the utmost importance that we supervise the use of any funds made available to Greece; in such a manner that each dollar spent will count toward making Greece self-supporting, and will help to build an economy in which a healthy democracy can flourish.

No government is perfect. One of the chief virtues of a democracy, however, is that its defects are always visible and under democratic processes can be pointed out and corrected. The Government of Greece is not perfect. Nevertheless it represents eighty-five per cent of the members of the Greek Parliament who were chosen in an election last year. Foreign observers, including 692 Americans, considered this election to be a fair expression of the views of the Greek people.

The Greek Government has been operating in an atmosphere of chaos and extremism. It has made mistakes. The extension of aid by this country does not mean that the United States condones everything that the Greek Government has done or will do. We have condemned in the past, and we condemn now, extremist measures of the right or the left. We have in the past advised tolerance, and we advise tolerance now.

Greece's neighbor, Turkey, also deserves our attention.

The future of Turkey as an independent and economically sound state is clearly no less important to the freedom-loving peoples of the world than the future of Greece. The circumstances in which Turkey finds itself today are considerably different from those of Greece. Turkey has been spared the disasters that have beset Greece. And during the war, the United States and Great Britain furnished Turkey with material aid.

Nevertheless, Turkey now needs our support.

Since the war Turkey has sought financial assistance from Great Britain and the United States for the purpose of effecting that modernization necessary for the maintenance of its national integrity.

That integrity is essential to the preservation of order in the Middle East.

The British government has informed us that, owing to its own difficulties can no longer extend financial or economic aid to Turkey.

As in the case of Greece, if Turkey is to have the assistance it needs, the United States must supply it. We are the only country able to provide that help.

I am fully aware of the broad implications involved if the United States extends assistance to Greece and Turkey, and I shall discuss these implications with you at this time.

One of the primary objectives of the foreign policy of the United States is the creation of conditions in which we and other nations will be able to work out a way of life free from coercion. This was a fundamental issue in the war with Germany and Japan. Our victory was won over countries which sought to impose their will, and their way of life, upon other nations.

To ensure the peaceful development of nations, free from coercion, the United States has taken a leading part in establishing the United Nations, The United Nations is designed to make possible lasting freedom and independence for all its members. We shall not realize our objectives, however, unless we are willing to help free peoples to maintain their free institutions and their national integrity against aggressive movements that seek to impose upon them totalitarian regimes. This is no more than a frank recognition that totalitarian regimes imposed on free peoples, by direct or indirect aggression, undermine the foundations of international peace and hence the security of the United States.

The peoples of a number of countries of the world have recently had totalitarian regimes forced upon them against their will. The Government of the United States has made frequent protests against coercion and intimidation, in violation of the Yalta agreement, in Poland, Rumania, and Bulgaria. I must also state that in a number of other countries there have been similar developments.

At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one.

One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression.

The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio; fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms.

I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.

I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.

I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes.

The world is not static, and the status quo is not sacred. But we cannot allow changes in the status quo in violation of the Charter of the United Nations by such methods as coercion, or by such subterfuges as political infiltration. In helping free and independent nations to maintain their freedom, the United States will be giving effect to the principles of the Charter of the United Nations.

It is necessary only to glance at a map to realize that the survival and integrity of the Greek nation are of grave importance in a much wider situation. If Greece should fall under the control of an armed minority, the effect upon its neighbor, Turkey, would be immediate and serious. Confusion and disorder might well spread throughout the entire Middle East.

Moreover, the disappearance of Greece as an independent state would have a profound effect upon those countries in Europe whose peoples are struggling against great difficulties to maintain their freedoms and their independence while they repair the damages of war.

It would be an unspeakable tragedy if these countries, which have struggled so long against overwhelming odds, should lose that victory for which they sacrificed so much. Collapse of free institutions and loss of independence would be disastrous not only for them but for the world. Discouragement and possibly failure would quickly be the lot of neighboring peoples striving to maintain their freedom and independence.

Should we fail to aid Greece and Turkey in this fateful hour, the effect will be far reaching to the West as well as to the East.

We must take immediate and resolute action.

I therefore ask the Congress to provide authority for assistance to Greece and Turkey in the amount of $400,000,000 for the period ending June 30, 1948. In requesting these funds, I have taken into consideration the maximum amount of relief assistance which would be furnished to Greece out of the $350,000,000 which I recently requested that the Congress authorize for the prevention of starvation and suffering in countries devastated by the war.

In addition to funds, I ask the Congress to authorize the detail of American civilian and military personnel to Greece and Turkey, at the request of those countries, to assist in the tasks of reconstruction, and for the purpose of supervising the use of such financial and material assistance as may be furnished. I recommend that authority also be provided for the instruction and training of selected Greek and Turkish personnel.

Finally, I ask that the Congress provide authority which will permit the speediest and most effective use, in terms of needed commodities, supplies, and equipment, of such funds as may be authorized.

If further funds, or further authority, should be needed for purposes indicated in this message, I shall not hesitate to bring the situation before the Congress. On this subject the Executive and Legislative branches of the Government must work together.

This is a serious course upon which we embark.

I would not recommend it except that the alternative is much more serious. The United States contributed $341,000,000,000 toward winning World War II. This is an investment in world freedom and world peace.

The assistance that I am recommending for Greece and Turkey amounts to little more than 1 tenth of 1 per cent of this investment. It is only common sense that we should safeguard this investment and make sure that it was not in vain.

The seeds of totalitarian regimes are nurtured by misery and want. They spread and grow in the evil soil of poverty and strife. They reach their full growth when the hope of a people for a better life has died. We must keep that hope alive.

The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms.

If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world -- and we shall surely endanger the welfare of our own nation.

Great responsibilities have been placed upon us by the swift movement of events.

I am confident that the Congress will face these responsibilities squarely.